Coccidioidal Meningitis: A Review on Diagnosis, Treatment, and Management of Complications

Coccidioidal Meningitis: A Review on Diagnosis, Treatment, and Management of Complications Purpose of review This article summarizes the diagnosis and treatment of coccidioidal meningitis (CM) and its complications. An overview of current and prospective pharmacologic treatment options and monitoring parameters is provided. A consensus has not been reached regarding universally accepted therapeutic serum levels for azoles because of insufficient evidence. We describe the preferred therapeutic drug level ranges that our institution uses to monitor azole therapy. Recent findings Ho et al. described the preparation and administration of intrathecally delivered amphotericin B deoxycholate. Thompson et al. described possible benefits of controversial adjuvant corticosteroid therapy for secondary prevention of vascu- litic infarction secondary to CM. Summary CM was universally fatal until the advent of intrathecal amphotericin B deoxycholate therapy, the introduction of which changed the natural history of the disease in much the same way as penicillin changed the natural history of bacterial meningitis. Although there was still significant morbidity, survival rates drastically increased to approximately 70%. The introduction of azole therapy has decreased the side effects and burden of treatment but without a significant change in CM- related mortality and morbidity compared with the use of intrathecal amphotericin B deoxycholate therapy. . . . . . Keywords Coccidioidal meningitis Hydrocephalus Antifungal http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports Springer Journals

Coccidioidal Meningitis: A Review on Diagnosis, Treatment, and Management of Complications

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Publisher
Springer US
Copyright
Copyright © 2018 by Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature
Subject
Medicine & Public Health; Neurology; Neurosciences
ISSN
1528-4042
eISSN
1534-6293
D.O.I.
10.1007/s11910-018-0824-8
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Purpose of review This article summarizes the diagnosis and treatment of coccidioidal meningitis (CM) and its complications. An overview of current and prospective pharmacologic treatment options and monitoring parameters is provided. A consensus has not been reached regarding universally accepted therapeutic serum levels for azoles because of insufficient evidence. We describe the preferred therapeutic drug level ranges that our institution uses to monitor azole therapy. Recent findings Ho et al. described the preparation and administration of intrathecally delivered amphotericin B deoxycholate. Thompson et al. described possible benefits of controversial adjuvant corticosteroid therapy for secondary prevention of vascu- litic infarction secondary to CM. Summary CM was universally fatal until the advent of intrathecal amphotericin B deoxycholate therapy, the introduction of which changed the natural history of the disease in much the same way as penicillin changed the natural history of bacterial meningitis. Although there was still significant morbidity, survival rates drastically increased to approximately 70%. The introduction of azole therapy has decreased the side effects and burden of treatment but without a significant change in CM- related mortality and morbidity compared with the use of intrathecal amphotericin B deoxycholate therapy. . . . . . Keywords Coccidioidal meningitis Hydrocephalus Antifungal

Journal

Current Neurology and Neuroscience ReportsSpringer Journals

Published: Mar 13, 2018

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