Cobra Venom Cytotoxin Free of Phospholipase A2 and Its Effect on Model Membranes and T Leukemia Cells

Cobra Venom Cytotoxin Free of Phospholipase A2 and Its Effect on Model Membranes and T Leukemia... Membrane-active toxins from snake venom have been used previously to study protein-lipid interactions and to probe the physical and biochemical states of biomembranes. To extend these studies, we have isolated from Naja naja kaowthia (cobra) venom a cytotoxin free of detectable phospholipase A2 (PLA2). The amino acid composition, pI (10.2), and net charge of the cytotoxin compares well with membrane-active toxins isolated from venoms of other cobras. The cytotoxin, shown by a spin label method, associates with PLA2 in buffers at pH values between 7.0 and 5.0, but not at pH 4.0. It is suggested that cytotoxin and PLA2 (pI close to 4.8) associate electrostatically in the native venom. The effect of the cytotoxin on model phospholipid membranes was studied by EPR of spin probes in oriented lipid multilayers and 1H-NMR of sonicated liposomes. The cytotoxin did not significantly affect the packing of lipids in pure phosphatidylcholine (PC) membranes and in PC membranes containing 10 mol% phosphatidic acid (PA) or cardiolipin (CL). However, the cytotoxin induced an increase in membrane permeability and formation of nonbilayer structures in PC membranes containing 40 mol% of PA or CL. The purified cytotoxin was cytocidal to Jurkat cells, but had little effect on normal human lymphocytes. However, both Jurkat cells and normal lymphocytes were killed equivalently when treated with 10−9 m PLA2 and 10−5 m cytotoxin in combination. From its effect on model membranes and Jurkat cells, it is suggested that purified cytotoxin preferentially targets and disrupts membranes that are rich in acidic phospholipids on the extracellular side of the plasma membrane. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png The Journal of Membrane Biology Springer Journals

Cobra Venom Cytotoxin Free of Phospholipase A2 and Its Effect on Model Membranes and T Leukemia Cells

Loading next page...
 
/lp/springer_journal/cobra-venom-cytotoxin-free-of-phospholipase-a2-and-its-effect-on-model-QEXmK1Ns2U
Publisher
Springer-Verlag
Copyright
Copyright © Inc. by 1997 Springer-Verlag New York
Subject
Life Sciences; Biochemistry, general; Human Physiology
ISSN
0022-2631
eISSN
1432-1424
D.O.I.
10.1007/s002329900165
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Membrane-active toxins from snake venom have been used previously to study protein-lipid interactions and to probe the physical and biochemical states of biomembranes. To extend these studies, we have isolated from Naja naja kaowthia (cobra) venom a cytotoxin free of detectable phospholipase A2 (PLA2). The amino acid composition, pI (10.2), and net charge of the cytotoxin compares well with membrane-active toxins isolated from venoms of other cobras. The cytotoxin, shown by a spin label method, associates with PLA2 in buffers at pH values between 7.0 and 5.0, but not at pH 4.0. It is suggested that cytotoxin and PLA2 (pI close to 4.8) associate electrostatically in the native venom. The effect of the cytotoxin on model phospholipid membranes was studied by EPR of spin probes in oriented lipid multilayers and 1H-NMR of sonicated liposomes. The cytotoxin did not significantly affect the packing of lipids in pure phosphatidylcholine (PC) membranes and in PC membranes containing 10 mol% phosphatidic acid (PA) or cardiolipin (CL). However, the cytotoxin induced an increase in membrane permeability and formation of nonbilayer structures in PC membranes containing 40 mol% of PA or CL. The purified cytotoxin was cytocidal to Jurkat cells, but had little effect on normal human lymphocytes. However, both Jurkat cells and normal lymphocytes were killed equivalently when treated with 10−9 m PLA2 and 10−5 m cytotoxin in combination. From its effect on model membranes and Jurkat cells, it is suggested that purified cytotoxin preferentially targets and disrupts membranes that are rich in acidic phospholipids on the extracellular side of the plasma membrane.

Journal

The Journal of Membrane BiologySpringer Journals

Published: Jan 15, 1997

There are no references for this article.

You’re reading a free preview. Subscribe to read the entire article.


DeepDyve is your
personal research library

It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.

Enjoy affordable access to
over 18 million articles from more than
15,000 peer-reviewed journals.

All for just $49/month

Explore the DeepDyve Library

Search

Query the DeepDyve database, plus search all of PubMed and Google Scholar seamlessly

Organize

Save any article or search result from DeepDyve, PubMed, and Google Scholar... all in one place.

Access

Get unlimited, online access to over 18 million full-text articles from more than 15,000 scientific journals.

Your journals are on DeepDyve

Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.

All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.

See the journals in your area

DeepDyve

Freelancer

DeepDyve

Pro

Price

FREE

$49/month
$360/year

Save searches from
Google Scholar,
PubMed

Create lists to
organize your research

Export lists, citations

Read DeepDyve articles

Abstract access only

Unlimited access to over
18 million full-text articles

Print

20 pages / month

PDF Discount

20% off