TECHNOLOGY OF POLYMERIC
SYSTEMS AND COMPOSITIONS
Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, 2013, Vol. 86, No. 7, pp. 1076−1080.
Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2013.
Original Russian Text © T.N. Poyarkova, S.S. Nikulin, D.E. Belozor, 2013, published in Zhurnal Prikladnoi Khimii, 2013, Vol. 86, No. 7, pp. 1143−1147.
Coagulation of Polystyrene Latex in the Presence
of a Cation-Active Surfactant and Polyelectrolytes
T. N. Poyarkova, S. S. Nikulin, and D. E. Belozor
Voronezh State University, Voronezh, Russia
Received April 8, 2013
Abstract—Coagulating effect of cation-active polyelectrolytes, a copolymer of N,N-dimethyl-N,N-diallylammonium
chloride and maleic acid, a fraction of the homopolymer of N,N-dimethyl-N,N-diallylammonium chloride, and
low-molecular cation-active surfactant (1-dodecylpyridinium bromide) on a diluted polystyrene latex at pH 7
and 3 was studied. The presence of macromolecules with different amounts of cation groups in the copolymer
accounts for the appearance of several peaks in the curves describing the dependence of a “minute” optical density
of the latex synthesized in the presence of a puriﬁ ed surfactant, sulfuric acid monododecyl ester sodium salt, on
the copolymer additive.
A large number of structurally diverse organic
coagulants of synthetic and natural origin have been
suggested. These coagulants make it possible either
to exclude use of low-efﬁ ciency inorganic salts or to
substantially reduce the expenditure of these salts in
wastewater puriﬁ cation and production of rubber from
latex . Of particular interest are copolymers based
on N,N-dimethyl-N,N-diallylammonium chloride
(DMDAAC) for development of new synthetic
polymeric ﬂ occulants providing a high charge density
. Their properties can be controlled by choosing
the second comonomer or the comonomer ratio in the
starting mixture, which opens up great opportunities for
synthesis of polymers with a required set of properties
for a particular application area [2, 3].
Previously, the possibility of using a copolymer of
N,N-dimethyl-N,N-diallylammonium chloride with
maleic acid (DMAACMA) for production of rubber from
SKS-30-ARK latex. The interest in using this sample
was based on the fact that introduction of an additional
monomer (maleic acid) can diminish the cost of the
coagulant. This will make it more competitive because
maleic acid is a by-product in manufacture of phthalic
and maleic anhydrides . This could open up new
opportunities for use of wastes from chemical industry,
which must reduce the environment contamination.
Moreover, the presence of acid groups of maleic acid
in the copolymer must additionally acidify the system,
which may also promote destabilization of the latex and
thereby lead to its coagulation.
It was found for the ﬁ rst time, in a study of the co-
agulation of diluted SKS-30ARK latex , that curves
describing the dependence of the minute turbidity of
diluted latex on the amount of the DMAACMA addi-
tive show several peaks. This phenomenon was attrib-
uted by the authors to the complex composition of both
the copolymer and the latex emulsiﬁ er. The emulsiﬁ ers
of SKS-30ARK latex include parafﬁ nates, dresinates,
and leukanol. It is known that these emulsiﬁ ers are
not individual substances (e.g., leukanol is constituted
by nine fractions with different molecular masses ).
Therefore, successive titration of anionic groups of the
surfactant is possible under introduction of cation-active
ﬂ occulants. The appearance of these peaks may also be
due to the presence of macromolecules with different
number of cation groups in the copolymer. To verify
this assumption, the behavior of SKS-30ARK latex was