1070-4272/05/7808-1351 + 2005 Pleiades Publishing, Inc.
Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, Vol. 78, No. 8, 2005, pp. 1351!1354. Translated from Zhurnal Prikladnoi Khimii, Vol. 78, No. 8, 2005,
Original Russian Text Copyright + 2005 by Nikulin, Akatova, Sedykh.
AND POLYMERIC MATERIALS
Coagulation of Latex in the Presence of Viscose Fiber
and Properties of the Resulting Rubbers,
Rubber Stocks, and Vulcanizates
S. S. Nikulin, I. N. Akatova, and V. A. Sedykh
Voronezh State Academy of Forestry Engineering, Voronezh, Russia
Voronezh State Technological Academy, Voronezh, Russia
Received November 10, 2004; in final form, March 2005
Abstract-The effect of addition of viscose fiber on the recovery of butadiene3styrene rubber from a latex
and on the properties of the commercial rubber and vulcanizates based on it was examined.
Preservation of the environment is one of the ma-
jor problems of the mankind. This is connected with
the increase in the extraction and processing of natural
resources. The rise in the industrial potential is ac-
companied by the formation and accumulation of large
amounts of wastes. Only 1/3 of the raw materials con-
sumed goes for production of target products, with 2/3
giving wastes and by-products. The enhancement of
the industrial impact on the nature gave rise to en-
vironmental problems [1, 2].
In Russia, the annual volume of wastes containing
chemical fibers and threads in the 198031990s was,
on the average, 9310 thousand tons. Use of these
wastes in industrial rubber and latex items and in
various formulations not only would give a consider-
able profit due to production of additional items but
also could solve environmental problems.
A certain part of textile wastes is used in various
branches of industry. However, the major fraction of
these wastes is not properly used as a secondary raw
material and is dumped. Therefore, utilization of tex-
tile wastes is a topical problem .
It is suggested to use fibers of various origins in
tire and rubber industry [4, 5]. In particular, textile
materials can be reinforcing elements in many indus-
trial rubber items for which the strength, durability,
low weight, and wide range of operation temperatures
are essential parameters .
In the above-mentioned studies, fibrous fillers were
introduced on rollers in the course of compounding
of rubber stocks. However, this procedure does not
ensure uniform distribution of the fibrous filler in
the bulk of the rubber stock, which, in turn, adverse-
ly affects the physicomechanical characteristics of
In this study, we examined the effect of viscose
fiber introduced into SKS-30 ARK butadiene3styrene
rubber (BSR) latex on the latex coagulation, rheo-
ligocal and vulcanization properties of the rubber and
rubber stock, and physicomechanical characteristics of
The apparatus for studying the recovery of the rub-
ber from the latex was a vessel equipped with a stirrer
and placed in a thermostat to maintain the required
temperature. The coagulator was charged with the
butadiene3styrene latex (dry residue about 18 wt %)
and thermostated at the required temperature for
15320 min. The fibrous filler was introduced with
an acidifying agent in the final step of rubber recovery
from the latex . The coagulation was performed
with a 24 wt % NaCl solution; the constant pH of the
coagulation (~2.0) was adjusted by adding 132wt%
Our experimental study consisted of two stages.
In the first stage, we examined the effect of viscose
fiber added with the acidifying agent (sulfuric acid) on
the rubber recovery from the latex. The viscose fiber
length was 2, 5, and 10 mm, and the fiber content,
0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7, and 1.0 wt % based on the rubber.
The results are listed in Tables 133.