ISSN 10674136, Russian Journal of Ecology, 2015, Vol. 46, No. 2, pp. 128–135. © Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2015.
Original Russian Text © P.P. Popov, 2015, published in Ekologiya, 2015, No. 2, pp. 95–102.
The continuous range of Norway spruce,
(L.) Karst., and Siberian spruce,
Ledeb., occupies vast territories in the east of Europe.
Here, mainly within the borders of Russia, the con
ventional boudaries of their species range are defined
[Atlas lesov…, 1973; Sokolov et al., 1977), as well as the
boundaryof the hybrid zone (Pravdin, 1975), which
represents, from the point of view of L.F. Pravdin
(Pravdin and Rostovtsev, 1979), the range of C
(Regel) Kom. (by Pravdin, 1975). The
entire territory is regarded by G. SchmidtVogt (1977)
as the Northwest European distribution subregion of
the European spruce that is, of Norway spruce and
Siberian spruce together.
Since Ledebour, the shape of seed scales is consid
ered the main diagnostic feature for Norway and Sibe
rian spruce (Teplouchoff, 1868; Teplouchoff, 1872;
Regel, 1883; Keppen, 1885; Golubets, 1960; Schmidt
Vogt, 1972; Pravdin, 1975). Norway (European)
spruce has slightly diamondshaped sinuatelacerated
seed scales with a truncated apex; Siberian spruce has
cuneateoviform (obovate) seed scales with a rounded
distal part. It was determined long ago that within the
sympatric range of the Norway and Siberian spruce in
Eastern Europe, a gradual change in seed scale shape
occurs in the eastward direction. In the western
regions of the Norway spruce range, as well as in the
eastern regions of the Siberian spruce range, plants
with a characteristic shape of seed scales prevail.
Across the vast middle part of their sympatric range,
high variation in seed scale shape is observed, which is
assumed to be a result of the natural (introgressive)
hybridization process (Danilov, 1943; Bobrov, 1944,
1974; Pravdin, 1975; Morozov, 1976; Popov, 1992;
Koropachinskii and Milyutin, 2006).
Under the effect of gradually changing growing
conditions and natural (introgressive) hybridization of
the Norway and Siberian spruces, a variety of popula
tions have formed in the eastern regions of Europe,
which differ primarily in the shape of seed scales.
Analysis of the rate and mode of geographical differ
entiation of spruce populations in this region is of
interest to science and silviculture (Mamaev et al.,
1988; Mamaev and Makhnev, 1996). The purpose of
this work was to study the clustering (grouping) of
these spruce populations under study, their phenotypic
structure, and relative localization on the basis of seed
scale shape indices using metric approaches and dis
MATERIALS AND METHODS
According to SchmidtVogt (1972) the most appro
priate character for analysing European spruce popu
lation variation is the type of cone (seed) scale, its lin
ear parameters, and their ratio. On the basis of biomet
ric assessment of the seedscale shape, not only
differences in the level of variation in this character
within spruce populations but also an uneven gradient
Cluster Groups, Population Structure, and Relative Localization
of Spruce Populations in Eastern Europe
P. P. Popov
Institute of the Problems of Development of the North, Siberian Branch,
Russian Academy of Sciences, Tyumen, 625003 Russia
Received November 6, 2013
—The general cluster of spruce populations in Eastern Europe with a Euclidean distance of 60 sub
divides into three large subclusters (A, B, and C) with the Euclidean distances of 24, 15, and 21, respectively.
Each of them contains three small subclusters with distances that vary from 4 to 8. Small subclusters clearly
differ from each other according to their seed scale form indices, phenotypic structure, Squared Mahalanobis
Distances, and relative distance values along the general scale of variation. In each of the A, B, and C clusters
two of the smaller subclusters group into a single cluster with Euclidean distances that vary from 8 to 13. Pop
ulations from cluster A segregate from the populations in clusters B and C, which group into a single cluster
with the Euclidean distance of 37.
: Norway spruce and Siberian spruce, seed scales form, grouping of populations into clusters,