ISSN 1070-4272, Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, 2015, Vol. 88, No. 11, pp. 1800−1807. © Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2015.
Original Russian Text © S.L. Fuks, S.V. Khitrin, Yu.V. Vologzhanina, L.N. Pinaeva, Yu.S. Mikhalitsyna, S.V. Devyaterikova, 2015, published in Zhurnal Prikladnoi
Khimii, 2015, Vol. 88, No. 11, pp. 1586−1593.
AND POLYMERIC MATERIALS
Cloused Cycle of Production of Ulltraﬁ ne Polytetraﬂ uoroethylene
and New Areas of Use of Fluoropolymer Manufacture Waste
S. L. Fuks, S. V. Khitrin, Yu. V. Vologzhanina, L. N. Pinaeva,
Yu. S. Mikhalitsyna, and S. V. Devyaterikova
Vyatka State University, ul. Moskovskaya 36, Kirov, 610000 Russia
e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com
Received February 6, 2015
Abstract—The features of processes of ultraﬁ ne polytetraﬂ uoroethylene manufacture of waste technological
polytetraﬂ uoroethylene by hydrothermal method and thermal degradation with an exhaustive ﬂ uorination in the
presence of cobalt triﬂ uoride were studied. Compositions and properties of gaseous and solid products of pyroly-
sis and recycling in ultraﬁ ne polytetraﬂ uoroethylene manufacture were determined. Methods of use of ultraﬁ ne
polytetraﬂ uoroethylene, gaseous products, and spent catalyst were developed. On the basis of the experiments a
closed scheme of producing ultraﬁ ne polytetraﬂ uoroethylene was proposed in view of its application with recycling
of accompanying gas fraction, and separating manufacture waste with recycling of cobalt triﬂ uoride catalyst and
using the resulting cobalt diﬂ uoride for producing composite coatings and lubricants.
A promising target product of recycling of poly-
tetraﬂ uoroethylene (PTFE) by thermal destruction with an
exhaustive ﬂ uorination is his derived nanoscale fraction,
ultraﬁ ne polytetraﬂ uoroethylene (UPTFE).
Detection of new areas of industrial applications
of nanostructured materials increases innovation of
Russian production, including ﬂ uoropolymer produc-
tion, in which there are problems of a lack of diversity of
high-tech products and the formation of large amounts
The aim of the work was to detect new areas of appli-
cation of PTFE, as well as areas of separation and use of
waste produced in the manufacture of UPTFE by ther-
mal destruction of PTFE with exhaustive ﬂ uorination.
PTFE molecular chains arrange themselves in helical
structures retaining their shape even when heated.
At temperatures up to 110°C there are preferably
macromolecules with one direction of rotation. At 110–
290°C there are molecules with right- and left rotating
helical structures. This is due to transitions between the
left and right helical twists . In the process of thermal
destruction at temperatures approaching the threshold of
loss of crystallinity (330°C or higher) in composition of
fractions there exist molecular chains of conformation,
which is close to the molecular conformation of the
substance before heating.
For producing micropowders of PTFE there are two
approaches. The ﬁ rst approach consists in macroscopic
grinding to a particle size of 5–20 μm by mechanical or
other physical impacts.
The second approach is to assemble the particles
of atoms and small molecules with the formation of
nanoparticles using special equipment or chemical self-
For producing nanoobjects of ﬂ uoropolymers a
combination of the two approaches was applied, as
the use of each separately hampered by properties of
polymers. The ﬂ uoropolymer macroobject is subjected
to hard impact, as a result of which it is decomposed into
macromolecular and molecular fragments. Nanoobjects
formed by self-assembly of these fragments.
Currently, in the production of nanopowders a synthe-
sis technology from the gas phase is widespread though
it was considered inapplicable for ﬂ uoropolymers. It