Nocturnal enuresis (NE) is a common health problem. Approximately 10% of 7-year-old children wet the bed regularly during sleep. Enuresis can be categorized into monosymptomatic (MEN) and nonmonosymptomatic (NMEN) forms. MEN occurs without any other symptoms of bladder dysfunction. NMEN is associated with dysfunction of the lower urinary tract with or without daytime incontinence. The rate of comorbid gastrointestinal, behavioral, and emotional disorders is elevated depending upon the subtype of NE. A careful clinical history is fundamental to the evaluation of enuresis. Diagnostic procedures include medical history and psychological screening with questionnaires, bladder and bowel diary, physical examination, urinalysis, ultrasound, and examination of residual urine. The mainstay of treatment is urotherapy with information and psychoeducation about normal lower urinary tract function, the underlying cause of MEN, disturbed bladder dysfunction in the child with NMEN and instructions about therapeutic strategies. Alarm therapy and the use of desmopressin have been shown to be effective in randomized trials. Children with NMEN first need treatment of the underlying daytime functional bladder problem before treatment of nocturnal enuresis. In patients with findings of overactive bladder, besides urotherapy, anticholinergic drugs may be useful.
Pediatric Nephrology – Springer Journals
Published: Aug 21, 2017
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