Vascular malformations are a heterogeneous group of entities, many of which present in the pediatric age group. Sonography plays a major role in the management of children with these vascular anomalies by providing information that helps in diagnosing them, in assessing lesion extent and complications, and in monitoring response to therapy. The interpretation of sonographic findings requires correlation with clinical findings, some of which can be easily obtained at the time of scanning. This has to be combined with the use of appropriate nomenclature and the most updated classification in order to categorize these patients into the appropriate management pathway. Some vascular malformations are part of combined vascular anomalies or are associated with syndromes that include other disorders, frequently limb overgrowth, and these are now being reclassified based on their underlying genetic mutation. Sonography has limitations in the evaluation of some vascular malformations and in these cases MR imaging might be considered the imaging modality of choice, particularly for lesions that are large, that involve multiple compartments or are associated with other soft-tissue and bone abnormalities. In this article, which is part 2 of a two-part series, the authors review the most relevant clinical and sonographic features of arteriovenous, capillary, venous and lymphatic malformations as well as vascular malformations that are part of more complex conditions or associated with syndromes, including Parkes–Weber syndrome, phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN) hamartoma tumor syndromes, Klippel–Trénaunay syndrome, CLOVES (congenital lipomatous overgrowth, vascular malformations, epidermal nevi and skeletal anomalies) syndrome, fibro-adipose vascular anomaly and Proteus syndrome.
Pediatric Radiology – Springer Journals
Published: Aug 4, 2017
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