Clinic Outcome Assessment of a Brief Course Neurofeedback for Childhood ADHD Symptoms Kate B. Nooner, PhD Kirsten D. Leaberry, MA Julian R. Keith, PhD Richard L. Ogle, PhD Neurofeedback (NFB) is a noninvasive neurocognitive intervention that relies on the principles of operant conditioning to retrain brainwave patterns associated with concentration, relaxation, and attention. When conducting NFB, electrodes are attached to the scalp and connected to a computer, which reads the brain waves. Brain waves in the desired range are reinforced (e.g., earning points), while brain waves outside of the range are punished (e.g., hearing beeping tone). Typical neurofeedback batteries for childhood attention deﬁcit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) 2–4 symptoms involve 30–40 neurofeedback sessions, each lasting 30–60 min. NFB can help children with ADHD symptoms learn which brain waves are associated with focused attention and which are not. NFB can involve teaching children to modify speciﬁc brainwaves associated with ADHD symptoms. Beta waves (13–30 Hz) are related to concentration and alertness, while alpha (8– 1,2 12 Hz) and theta (4–8 Hz) waves are associated with relaxation. Additionally, theta waves are 1,2 associated with daydreaming and lethargy. Some NFB treatments for ADHD symptoms utilize theta/beta training to increase beta wave activity to
The Journal of Behavioral Health Services & Research – Springer Journals
Published: May 17, 2016
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