1022-7954/05/4108- © 2005 Pleiades Publishing, Inc.
Russian Journal of Genetics, Vol. 41, No. 8, 2005, pp. 859–870. Translated from Genetika, Vol. 41, No. 8, 2005, pp. 1055–1067.
Original Russian Text Copyright © 2005 by Artemyeva.
Variability of wing pattern in Lepidoptera is of con-
siderable interest for microevolutionary studies.
The common blue butterﬂy
Rott. is an excellent model for geographic studies of the
phenotypic expression of wing pattern characters.
Owing to the marked heterogeneity of wing pattern, its
phenotypic variation can be easily scored. Furthermore,
is a common and abundant species with pro-
nounced sexual dimorphism, which exhibits high pat-
tern variation of both upper and lower sides of the wing.
As a result of numerous crosses, 19 forms (pheno-
types) of wing pattern of the lower wing part were
[1–3]. These forms are as follows:
arcuata, basijuncta, costajuncta, conﬂumens
biarcuata, semiarcuata, semibasijuncta, semicosta-
(recessive, rare, intermediate);
(rare). All forms with a radial
pattern are particularly common in extreme environ-
ments (in late laboratory generations) and are probably
related to impaired development of wing pattern in
ontogeny, which leads to abnormal phenotypic patterns.
characterized by arc-shaped elongation, fusion, and close-
ness of the basal and marginal ocelli in cell Cu
–2A of the
anterior wing; fusion of the marginal and basal ocelli in
cell Sc+R of the posterior wing; fusion of the discal and
marginal ocelli in cell Cu
–2A of the posterior wing;
the marginal ocelli in the posterior wing cell Cu
beanlike shape; and elongated basal ocelli. The
phenotype is expressed on the anterior wings; the
remaining phenotypes, on the posterior wings. The
occurrence of all three of the pattern variants in the
same animal produces the
addition to those listed above, there are ﬁve intermedi-
biarcuata, semiarcuata, semibasijuncta,
, which are character-
ized by partial dispersal of ocelli and formation of sub-
(dominant) is characterized
by three basal anterior wing ocelli, elongation of basal
ocelli of the anterior wing, the beanlike marginal ocel-
lus in cell Cu
–2A of the anterior wing, elongation of
marginal ocelli in cells R
of the anterior
: basal ocelli of the
anterior and posterior wings are markedly elongated lon-
gitudinally and dispersed toward the exterior wing edge.
Intermediate phenotypes are
: three basal ocelli on the anterior
wings; all ocellus systems of the anterior wing are large
and markedly elongated longitudinally; the marginal
ocellus in posterior wing cell Sc+R is strongly elon-
gated longitudinally, but not fused with the basal ocel-
lus; basal ocelli of the posterior wing are elongated
toward the exterior wing edge. Intermediate pheno-
(very rare): veins intersect
vertically in two spots; is related to a defect in venation.
All phenotypes with a radial pattern are particularly fre-
quent in extreme environments (in late laboratory gen-
erations) and are probably related to impaired develop-
Clinal Variation in Populations
of the Common Blue Butterfly
E. A. Artemyeva
Department of Zoology, Ul’yanovsk State Pedagogical University, Ul’yanovsk, 432700 Russia;
fax: (8422) 40-60-84; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Received April 20, 2004; in ﬁnal form, March 22, 2005
—Geographical trends in variation of wing pattern characters of the common blue butterﬂy
Rott. have been established. Peripheral populations were shown to be more rich and diverse phe-
notypically than those of the central parts of the species range. Phenotypic diversity of the populations increased
from the center to the periphery of the range. The range boundaries were characterized by strong ﬂuctuations
of frequencies of wing pattern phenotypes. Hybrid areas were found on the part of the range examined.