Physical Oceanography, Vol. 17, No. 6, 2007
CLIMATIC SATELLITE MONITORING OF THE EXTERNAL HEAT BALANCE
OF THE OCEANS AND BLACK SEA
N. A. Timofeev and A. V. Yurovskii
The long-wave outgoing radiation, effective cloudiness equal to the product of the total cloud
amount by their optical density, and the sea-surface temperature determined from the satellites
are used to determine the annual course of the components of external heat balance on the sea
surface whose climatic anomalies, parallel with the meridional heat and water transfer in the oce-
an–atmosphere system, specify the intraannual and interannual large-scale variations of weather
in different regions of the Earth. The development of these studies is connected with the pro-
gress of satellite hydrophysics because the data obtained from the space become sufficiently
exact, regular, and global. The increase in the existing data array on the external heat balance of
the oceans from
and more would promote the solution of the problem of oscil-
lations of Earth’s climate. We present examples of coordinated numerical analysis of the heat
balance of the upper
layer of the Black Sea performed on the basis of the shipborne
and satellite data.
At present, there are three principal directions in the marine investigations: ocean and climate, dynamics of
ecosystems, and management of the coastal zone of the sea and its resources . The first direction is connected
with the accumulation of new data for a more detailed description of the complex processes of changes in the
global and regional climate based on the data of superlong satellite observations of the parameters characterizing
the processes of large-scale interaction of the ocean with the atmosphere.
The interaction between the ocean and the atmosphere is usually regarded as a collection of exchange pro-
cesses running according to various mechanisms of redistribution and transformation of the solar energy on dif-
ferent scales. Great amounts of heat are accumulated in waters of the World Ocean due to the absorption of solar
radiation and long-wave radiation of the atmosphere and clouds. The oceans return this heat back into the atmo-
sphere in the form of their own long-wave radiation. Moreover, according to the mechanism of turbulent diffu-
sion, they deliver into the atmosphere not only heat but also moisture. In this way, they regulate the processes of
transfer of these substances in the atmosphere and, hence, determine the climate and natural conditions on the
In the monograph , one can find the methods (based on the shipborne and satellite data) aimed at calcul-
ating the global (we consider the ice-free region of the World Ocean between
fields of sea-sur-
face temperature (SST) t, total solar radiation Q
, radiation balance R
, effective cloudiness EC, atmosphe-
ric precipitation AP and aerosol, turbulent fluxes of sensible H and latent LE heat, evaporation E, and the
Marine Hydrophysical Institute, Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, Sevastopol.
Translated from Morskoi Gidrofizicheskii Zhurnal, No.
59–75, November–December, 2007. Original article submitted August 1,
360 0928-5105/07/1706–0360 © 2007 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.