Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, 2011, Vol. 83, No. 9, pp. 1631−1637.
Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2010.
Original Russian Text
I.O. Mikulionok, 2010, published in Khimicheskaya Promyshlennost’, 2010, Vol. 88, No. 2, pp. 67−74.
PROCESSES AND DEVICES
OF CHEMICAL MANUFACTURES
Nozzle apparatuses remain one of the most spread
type of equipment for mass transfer. This is ﬁ rst of all
due to relative simplicity of the production of elements
of nozzle and also absence of necessity in devices for
distribution of treated phases by each single element
(in comparison, for example, with plate and ﬁ lm mass
transfer apparatuses) [1, 2].
Despite quite big amount of existing nozzles there is
quite active search of new designs of cheap and effective
nozzle elements in recent years [3-6]. This is due to such
advantages of nozzles in comparison with other types of
contacting elements of mass transfer equipment as quite
low price, possibility of its production from different
materials, relatively high uniﬁ cation (possibility of use
in apparatuses with different diameter) as well as other
The analysis of existing nozzles enabled making clas-
siﬁ cation by following main groups of indices (Fig. 1):
– by method of laying in contacting part of apparatus;
– by equivalent diameter of the contacting element;
– by form of the element;
– by construction of the element;
– by type of the material of the element;
– by density of the material of the element;
– by parts density in contacting part of the apparatus;
– by motion freedom of elements relative to each other.
By the way of packing in apparatus there are disor-
dered (irregular) and ordered (regular) packings. Irregular
loading is used for nozzles of all dimensions, and regu-
lar is used in most cases for large and medium nozzles
Classiﬁ cation of Nozzles of Mass Transfer Apparatuses
I. O. Mikulionok
Ukrainian Technical University “Kyiv Polytechnical Institute”, Kyiv, Ukraine
Received January 25, 2011
Abstract—The detailed classiﬁ cation of nozzles of heat and mass transfer apparatuses is proposed. Examples of
the constructive design of new types of domestic and foreign disordered and ordered nozzles are given.
(equivalent diameter no less 50mm). Advantages of the
regular packing are lower hydraulic resistance and higher
velocities of light phase; main disadvantages are rela-
tive complexity of loading and unloading (especially for
large apparatuses) and irregularity of ﬂ ows of phases by
cross-section of contacting part (up to by-pass of phases
next to walls of the body caused by decreased hydraulic
Recently quite many new kinds of regular packing are
proposed; they have a form, for example, of ensemble of
ﬁ xed to each other pipes, disposed at the angle to lon-
gitudinal axis of formed by them cylinder located in the
contacting part of the mass transfer apparatus (Patent of
Russian Federation no. 2397806, Fig. 2a). Also packing in
a form of package of twisted by length polymer elements
of cruciform cross-section (Patent of Russian Federation
no. 2335724, Fig. 2b) is proposed.
By equivalent diameter elements of nozzles are
divided into large, medium, small and granular (Fig. 1).
With the decrease in the size of the nozzle the speciﬁ c
surface increases but simultaneously free volume de-
creases and consequently hydraulic resistance increases.
Therefore small and granular nozzles are often used
for carrying out of mass transfer processes at increased
pressure when the loss of the pressure in apparatus is
insigniﬁ cant in comparison with operating pressure. It is
necessary at selection of the size of the nozzle to follow
ratio of equivalent diameters of apparatus and elements
of nozzle which has to be no less 10 .
By the form of the element there are most spread