Chromium removal technologies
Received: 12 June 2012 / Accepted: 17 August 2012 / Published online: 7 September 2012
Ó Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012
Abstract Chromium can exist in different oxidation states (e.g. 0, III, VI).
Chromium can be both beneﬁcial and toxic to animals and humans depending on its
oxidation state and concentration. At low concentration, Cr(III) is essential for
animal and human health. Chromium(VI) compounds are highly soluble, mobile
and bioavailable compared to trivalent chromium. Chromium(VI) is dangerous for
humans due to its toxicity and carcinogenic properties. The presence of hexavalent
chromium in waste water is a potential hazard to aquatic animals and humans.
Various methods are adopted for the removal of hexavalent chromium from
industrial efﬂuents. Among these different techniques, biosorption is the most
promising one. In this process, the various components present in biomaterial
reduce the toxic hexavalent chromium to non-toxic trivalent chromium. Algae,
fungi and bacteria have biosorption properties, and cell walls are responsible for
biosorption of dead biomaterial. But this process removes chromium from waste
water very slowly. So for chemical modiﬁcation of biosorbents, optimization of
biosorption parameters is required to increase the effectiveness of this process.
Keywords Chromium Á Toxicity Á Biosorption
All metals are toxic and our bodies require special transport and handling
mechanisms to keep them from harming us. The toxicity occurs in humans due to
environmental pollution via soil or water contamination or to occupational exposure.
Some of these metals are useful to us in low concentrations but are highly toxic in
K. Mukherjee Á R. Saha Á A. Ghosh Á B. Saha (&)
Bioremediation Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, The University of Burdwan, Golapbag,
Burdwan 713104, WB, India
Res Chem Intermed (2013) 39:2267–2286