Chromatin mechanisms in genomic imprinting

Chromatin mechanisms in genomic imprinting Mammalian imprinted genes are clustered in chromosomal domains. Their mono-allelic, parent-of-origin-specific expression is regulated by imprinting control regions (ICRs), which are essential sequence elements marked by DNA methylation on one of the two parental alleles. These methylation “imprints” are established during gametogenesis and, after fertilization, are somatically maintained throughout development. Nonhistone proteins and histone modifications contribute to this epigenetic process. The way ICRs mediate imprinted gene expression differs between domains. At some domains, for instance, ICRs produce long noncoding RNAs that mediate chromatin silencing. Lysine methylation on histone H3 is involved in this developmental process and is particularly important for imprinting in the placenta and brain. Together, the newly discovered chromatin mechanisms provide further clues for addressing imprinting-related pathologies in humans. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Mammalian Genome Springer Journals

Chromatin mechanisms in genomic imprinting

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Publisher
Springer-Verlag
Copyright
Copyright © 2009 by Springer Science+Business Media, LLC
Subject
Life Sciences; Zoology ; Anatomy ; Cell Biology
ISSN
0938-8990
eISSN
1432-1777
D.O.I.
10.1007/s00335-009-9223-4
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Mammalian imprinted genes are clustered in chromosomal domains. Their mono-allelic, parent-of-origin-specific expression is regulated by imprinting control regions (ICRs), which are essential sequence elements marked by DNA methylation on one of the two parental alleles. These methylation “imprints” are established during gametogenesis and, after fertilization, are somatically maintained throughout development. Nonhistone proteins and histone modifications contribute to this epigenetic process. The way ICRs mediate imprinted gene expression differs between domains. At some domains, for instance, ICRs produce long noncoding RNAs that mediate chromatin silencing. Lysine methylation on histone H3 is involved in this developmental process and is particularly important for imprinting in the placenta and brain. Together, the newly discovered chromatin mechanisms provide further clues for addressing imprinting-related pathologies in humans.

Journal

Mammalian GenomeSpringer Journals

Published: Sep 17, 2009

References

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