CHOOSING FUNCTIONAL ADDITIVES FOR OPTIMIZING
THE PROPERTIES OF PERICLASE-SPINEL COMPONENTS
V. I. Shubin,
V. Ya. Sakulin,
V. P. Migal’,
S. I. Gershkovich,
A. P. Margishvili,
and V. V. Bulin
Translated from Novye Ogneupory, No. 3, pp. 134 – 137, March, 2007.
Original article submitted November 22, 2006.
The engineering center at Borovichi Refractory Corporation has researched the optimization of composition
for periclase-spinel components for lining the sintering zone in a rotating oven for firing cement clinker.
The best composition and the best ratios between the additives have been established for the addition to the
finely ground material, and the composition has been determined together with the best amount of temperature
compensator, which is needed to improve the thermomechanical properties of the components and give preset
Since 1996, the cement industry in Russia and the world
generally has shown a steady growth in the production of ce-
ment clinker. For example, in 2005, the increase in cement
production at Russian Federation organizations (by compari-
son with 2004) was 5.3% . The production capacities of
cement producers in Russia was utilized to 64.3% , which
together with the increase in the rates of living accommoda-
tion building (including within national projects) leads one to
forecast further growth in the production of cement clinker.
The clinker is made in two ways: dry and wet, and in
Europe the proportion of the dry method exceeds 75%, while
in Russia in 2004 it was 14.2%. There is thus a substantial
margin in the cement industry in this country for modifica
tion, namely transfer to the dry method, which will provide a
considerable saving in energy for the firing. Tighter specifi
cations apply to the refractory materials for the dry method
(by comparison with the wet one) on account of the higher
thermal loading on the sintering lining zone.
The interior of a rotating furnace for firing cement
clinker may be divided into zones. The sound choice of
refractories appropriate to the zones, the diameter of the
oven, the length, and the method of production is dependent
on the raw components and the fuel, which allows one to
provide the maximum working life for the refractory lining
in normal furnace operation, and this regularly reduces the
costs from repair and furnace downtime. It is therefore ne
cessary to use refractory materials of high performance under
At the engineering center of Borovichi Refractory Cor-
poration, research has been done to improve the performance
of components for the sintering zone in a rotating oven,
which has led to periclase-spinel refractories whose charac-
teristics are better than those of the standard grade of
PShATs. The research has been done in several stages: com-
position optimization for the finely ground component;
choosing a material that increases the thermal stability be
cause of the difference in thermal expansion coefficients; and
choice of the optimal content of that material.
FINE-GROUND COMPONENT COMPOSITION
Magnesium oxide (periclase) is a basic oxide and has
high stability in contact with Portland cement clinker .
Therefore, from the viewpoint of chemical stability it might
appear preferable to use refractories consisting of pure mag
nesium oxide, but they have very low thermal stability. To in
crease the thermal stability in periclase components one
needs to add material differing in thermal expansion coeffi
cient from periclase (corundum, spinel).
To improve the strength of a periclase refractory, one
adds components to the finely ground fraction that form
high-temperature phases with small amounts of periclase. Ef
fective additives are ZrO
. The addition of ZrO
raises the ultimate strength in bending of a periclase refrac
Refractories and Industrial Ceramics Vol. 48, No. 1, 2007
1083-4877/07/4801-0069 © 2007 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.
Cement Research Company and Borovichi Refractory Corpora