Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, 2013, Vol. 86, No. 3, pp. 339−342.
Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2013.
Original Russian Text © O.V. Grineva, A.N. D’yachenko, R.I. Kraidenko, 2013, published in Zhurnal Prikladnoi Khimii, 2013, Vol. 86, No. 3, pp. 367−370.
OF SYSTEMS AND PROCESSES
Chlorination of Copper-Containing Raw Material
by Ammonium Chloride
O. V. Grineva, A. N. D’yachenko, and R. I. Kraidenko
Physico-Technical Institute, Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, Russia
Received August 16, 2011
Abstract—A new method of processing the copper-containing raw material to copper(II) oxide was suggested
and examined based on the chlorination of copper-containing raw material with ammonium chloride followed by
dissolution of copper chloride, precipitation of copper hydroxide from a solution and its calcining to copper(II)
oxide. Thermogravimetric analysis of the process was conducted. Kinetics of chlorination of copper(II) oxide by
ammonium chloride was experimentally investigated. Technological scheme of the copper-containing raw material
processing with ammonium chloride was suggested.
Copper concentrates produced industrially contain
three or four component and require further separation.
Concentrate with one major component can be
obtained in the case of using chemical methods of ore
beneﬁ cation. For processing of non-ferrous metals
acids and ammonia are used as leaching reagents .
Chlorine metallurgy is one of the promising areas of
processing non-ferrous metals. Gaseous chlorine and
hydrogen chloride, hydrochloric acid solution or solid
chlorinator (mainly alkali metal chlorides) are applied
to chlorination . The possibility of chlorination of
copper ores and concentrates by ammonium chloride
are offered to consideration in the study. Ammonium
chloride under normal conditions is a solid, non-toxic
substance, when heated it decomposes into gaseous
hydrogen chloride and ammonia. The advantage of
using ammonium chloride is its selectivity for the
components of treated raw materials (no interaction
with silicon, aluminum, titanium oxides; it interacts
with iron, manganese, zinc, copper oxides) [3, 4].
Since ammonium chloride interacts with both sulﬁ des
and oxides of metals it can be used for chlorination of
oxidized sulﬁ de or mixed mineral and industrial raw
According to thermogravimetric analysis (Fig. 1)
copper(II) chloride is the product of interaction of
copper(II) oxide with ammonium chloride; there ex-
ists an intermediate stage of formation of diammonium
tetrachlorocuprate(II), this compound is described in [5, 6].
Analysis was performed on the combined TGA/DSC/
Fig. 1. Thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis of
the interaction of copper(II) oxide with ammonium chloride.
(m) weight (%), (Q) heat effect (W g
), (T) temperature (°C).