Sex Roles, Vol. 41, No s. 11/12, 1999
Child ren and Careers: A Lo ngitu dinal Study of the
Impact of Young Ch ildren on Critical Care er
Outcom es of MBA s
Cyn th ia E. Miree
O aklan d Un iv ersity
Irene Han so n Frieze
Univ ersity of Pittsbu rgh
The purpose of this study was to in v estigate the im pact of young ch ild ren
on the careers of m en an d wom en with MB A s who grad uated between the
years of 1973 an d 1982. The outcom e v ariab les studied were salary, m onths
of non ± full-tim e emplo ym ent, an d pro m otio ns. We began our an alyses by
lo oking at the fu ll sam ple of 829 responden ts. We fou nd that m en had
high er salaries than women regard less of paren tal status. Women w ith yo ung
child ren experien ced signi® can tly m ore m onth s of n on ± fu ll-tim e em plo ym ent
an d w ere m ore likely to drop out of the workfo rce than m en an d other
groups of wom en . The sp ouses of men with young ch ild ren an d only o lder
child ren worked in paid emplo ym ent sign i® cantly few er hours than all other
groups of responden ts. Those wom en with yo ung child ren w ho did rem ain
contin uously in the paid workfo rce d id not ap pear to experien ce any salary
ben e® t based on this d ecisio n. In terruptio ns to fu ll-tim e work w ere detrim en -
tal for wom en without ch ild ren or those w om en w ho se ch ild ren were old er.
In gen eral, havin g child ren w as correlated with lower salaries for wom en
an d h igh er salaries fo r men.
The authors wou ld like to thank th e Of® ce of Rese arch and the Jose ph M. Katz Grad uate
School of Busin ess for their support of this re search.
This paper was originally subm itte d to Sex Roles while Cynthia Mire e was a doctoral student
at the Unive rsity of Pittsburgh.
To whom corre spondence should be addresse d at Departme nt of Psychology, Uni ve rsity of
Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvan ia 15260.
1999 Plenum Publishing Corporation