Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, 2012, Vol. 85, No. 10, pp. 1600−1609.
Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2012.
Original Russian Text © N.V. Baranova, L.A. Pashina, G.G. Suchkova, A.V. Kostochko, 2012, published in Zhurnal Prikladnoi Khimii, 2012, Vol. 85, No. 10,
AND POLYMERIC MATERIALS
Chemical Composition of the Surface of Modifying Polymers
in Filled Cellulose Nitrate Composites: An IR Study
N. V. Baranova, L. A. Pashina, G. G. Suchkova, and A. V. Kostochko
Kazan National Research University of Technology, Kazan, Tatarstan, Russia
Received July 26, 2012
Abstract—The surface of modifying polymers in ﬁ lled cellulose nitrate composites was studied by attenuated
total internal reﬂ ection IR spectroscopy. The qualitative and quantitative characteristics of the surface structure of
butadiene–nitrile and urethane rubbers of various grades and of vinyl polymers were examined. The results were
compared to the published IR spectra of the substances in the bulk.
Functional characteristics of polymer surfaces deter-
mine many practically important macroscopic properties
of materials. Such characteristics are manifested in the
chemical structure of the surface (elemental composi-
tion, presence of various reactive fragments or functional
groups), in its physical structure (degree of crystallinity,
orientation of macromolecules), and in its morphology
On the whole, the chemical structure of the surface
of polymeric materials is a complex characteristic de-
termining both their properties and the rate of chemical
and physicochemical interaction of polymers with other
For example, migration of polar groups under deﬁ nite
conditions from the bulk of the material to the surface
or vice versa can be used in practice, because such ef-
fects strongly inﬂ uence the free surface energy and,
correspondingly, the wettability and adhesion, and also
frictional and electrical properties, biocompatibility, and
other characteristics of the polymers.
By now, numerous experimental data on the kinetics
and features of formation of chemical and supramolecular
structure of the surface layers have been analyzed and
summarized for a wide range of polymers. However,
the chemical structure of the surface layers of polymeric
materials is not always considered adequately, although
deeper layers have been studied fairly comprehensively
by IR spectroscopy.
To better understand interphase interactions in cel-
lulose nitrate composites with nitramine ﬁ llers and to
purposefully control the service properties of such sys-
tems, using attenuated total internal reﬂ ection (ATIR) IR
spectroscopy, we examined the chemical composition of
the surface layer of butadiene–nitrile and urethane rubbers
and of vinyl polymers with which the surface of these
ﬁ llers was modiﬁ ed.
Experiments were performed with the following sub-
stances: butadiene–nitrile rubbers with various contents
of nitrile groups SKN-18, SKN-26, and SKN-40 [TU
(Technical Speciﬁ cation) 38-303-01-41–92]; millable
polyurethane rubbers SKU-8А (TU 38.103209–77) and
SKU-8TB (TU 38.103468–80); vinyl polymers polyvinyl
nitrate (PVN) (MW 550
000) and polyvinyl
butyral (PVB) [GOST (State Standard) 9439–85].
The component composition of the polymer surfaces
was determined by ATIR. To this end, we used polymer
ﬁ lms cast from a 2% solution in methylene chloride.
The IR spectra of the surface were recorded in the range
with a Spectrum 100 Fourier IR spec-
trometer (Perkin–Elmer) using zinc selenide as optical
material. The substance identiﬁ cation by IR spectros-