1070-4272/02/7503-0495$27.00C2002 MAIK [Nauka/Interperiodica]
Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, Vol. 75, No. 3, 2002, pp. 495! 498. Translated from Zhurnal Prikladnoi Khimii, Vol. 75, No. 3,
2002, pp. 506!509.
Original Russian Text Copyright + 2002 by Platonov, Proskuryakov, Glybina.
OF FOSSIL FUEL
Chemical Composition of the Organic Matter of Oil Shale
(Kerogen-70) from Leningrad Oblast (Benzene!Ethanol Extract)
V. V. Platonov, V. A. Proskuryakov, and A. V. Glybina
Tolstoi State Pedagogical University, Tula, Russia
St. Petersburg State Technological Institute, St. Petersburg, Russia
Received August 13, 2001
Abstract-Detailed data are reported on the chemical composition of the benzene!ethanol extract of oil shale
Among fossil fuels, oil shales occupy a particular
position with respect to both origin and composition,
on the one hand, and role as a chemical raw material
and power source, on the other hand. The increased
hydrogen content in the organic matter of shales
(OMS) and, as a result, higher yield of liquid products
make oil shales promising as a source of liquid fuel
and raw materials for chemical industry.
Integrated processing of oil shales to obtain hydro-
carbon raw materials can be set up only after detailed
elucidation of the composition of OMS. Such studies
will give insight into the composition of the initial
biomaterial, its genetic relationship with various OMS
compounds, and pathways of biogeochemical trans-
formation of OMS in the course of shale formation
and will facilitate development of a process for shale
treatment to obtain a wide range of valuable products
In this work we studied the chemical composition
of the benzene3ethanol extract of shale oil (kerogen-
70) from Leningrad oblast.
Shale was extracted in a Soxhlet apparatus with a
boiling benzene3ethanol (3 : 1 by volume) mixture.
The yield of the extract was 6.4% relative to OMS.
The molecular structures of the extract components
were determined by a combination of methods includ-
ing elemental, quantitative functional, emission spec-
trum, and structural-group analyses, cryoscopy, IR
and UV/VIS spectroscopy, and capillary gas3liquid
The average molecular weight of the extract
298; elemental composition, %: C 73.6, H 10.5, N
0.7, and O + S 15.2; atomic ratio H/C 1.71; degrees
of aromaticity 0.19, naphthenicity 0.53, and alkyl
substitution 0.28; functional composition (groups,
): phenolic (PG) 1.01, keto (KG) 1.33,
quinoid (QG) 0.79, carboxy (CG) 0.22; ester groups
(EG) and lactone rings (LR) 0.35; iodine number 0.14.
In the IR spectrum of the extract, we identified
the absorption bands of the following fragments (n,
). Fairly strong bands of aromatic rings (30103
3080, doublet 1500/1595, 1450, 6753900, 80031200).
The higher intensity of the low-frequency component
of the doublet suggests that monocyclic aromatic
structures prevail. Substitution in aromatic rings:
monosubstituted compounds (735, 710) prevail, the
content of disubstituted compounds (7403760, 820) is
lower, and more highly substituted compounds are not
detected. The spectra also contain bands of the CH
groups in alkanes and cycloalkane structures
(2850, 292632980, 137031380, 1470, 1450), a broad
strong band (3380) of alcoholic and phenolic hydrox-
yls, and some other bands characteristic of alcohols
and phenols (1360, 1220, 133031420, 6353660).
We also observed medium-intensity carbonyl bands
characteristic of various compounds: ketones, mainly
aliphatic (1690, 1700, 1710, 1720, 1100); a- and
g-pyrones (1720, 1735, 160031650, 1540); six- (1735,
750, present in larger amounts) and five-membered
(1775, 1720) lactones; and cyclic anhydrides (1750,
1800). Also the spectra contain weak bands of esters
with cycloalkane and alkane fragments (3450, 17353
1750, 116031210), furan (157031605, 147531510,
138031400, 8203885, 7403800) and pyrrole hetero-
cycles (3490, 1565, 1500), and alkoxy groups (12003
1225, 812, 2990), including methoxy groups (2835).