Many Eryngium species have been traditionally used as ornamental, edible or medicinal plants. The gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC–MS) analyses have shown that the major compounds in the aerial parts were spathulenol (in E. campestre and E. palmatum oils) and germacrene D (in E. amethystinum oil). The main compounds in the root oil were nonanoic acid, 2,3,4-trimethylbenzaldehyde and octanoic acid for E. campestre, E. amethystinum and E. palmatum, respectively. All the oils expressed the highest potential against Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus as well as Gram-negative Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus mirabilis. Molecular docking analysis was used for determining a potential antibacterial activity mechanism of compounds present in the essential oils. Molecular docking confirmed that the binding affinity of spathulenol to the active site of tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase was the highest among the tested dominant compounds. Regarding the total phenolic content (determined by the Folin–Ciocalteu assay) and flavonoid content (evaluated using aluminum nitrate nonahydrate), the highest amount was found in the ethyl acetate extract of E. palmatum. The results of DPPH and ABTS assay indicated that the highest antioxidant activity was present in the water extract of E. amethystinum. Extracts of the aerial parts presented as minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) expressed the activity in the range 0.004–20.00 mg/mL, with the highest activity exhibited by the acetone and ethyl acetate extracts against Proteus mirabilis. The obtained results suggest that Eryngium species may be considered a beneficial native source of the compounds with antioxidant and antimicrobial properties.
Journal of Food Science and Technology – Springer Journals
Published: Jun 1, 2018
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