We investigated the dual targeting signal of pea glutathione reductase (GR) that had been previously shown to be capable of targeting the passenger protein phosphinothricin acetyl transferase to mitochondria and chloroplasts in vivo. We confirmed that GR was imported into mitochondria and chloroplasts in vitro. Rupture of the outer mitochondrial membrane after the import assay indicated that GR was imported into both the intermembrane space and the matrix. Changing positive and hydrophobic residues in the targeting signal we investigated if dual targeting of GR was due to an overlapping or separate signal. Overall single mutations had a greater effect on mitochondrial import compared to chloroplasts, especially those on positive residues. Precursors containing both positive and hydrophobic residue mutations (double mutants) indicated that there might be some redundancy in targeting information for chloroplastic import as double mutants had a greater effect than predicted from the single mutants. Fusion of the targeting signal to the green fluorescent protein (GFP) followed by transient transformation indicated that this signal was only capable of targeting this passenger protein to plastids. Additionally, fusion of the complete coding sequence of GR to GFP also resulted in an exclusive chloroplastic localization. Mutations in the targeting signal that reduced import into plastids in vitro also displayed altered patterns of GFP localizations in vivo. These results indicate that some residues in the signal for dual localisation of GR play a role in both mitochondrial and chloroplastic import, and thus the signal is overlapping.
Plant Molecular Biology – Springer Journals
Published: Oct 7, 2004
It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.
Enjoy affordable access to
over 18 million articles from more than
15,000 peer-reviewed journals.
All for just $49/month
Query the DeepDyve database, plus search all of PubMed and Google Scholar seamlessly
Save any article or search result from DeepDyve, PubMed, and Google Scholar... all in one place.
Get unlimited, online access to over 18 million full-text articles from more than 15,000 scientific journals.
Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.
All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.
“Hi guys, I cannot tell you how much I love this resource. Incredible. I really believe you've hit the nail on the head with this site in regards to solving the research-purchase issue.”Daniel C.
“Whoa! It’s like Spotify but for academic articles.”@Phil_Robichaud
“I must say, @deepdyve is a fabulous solution to the independent researcher's problem of #access to #information.”@deepthiw
“My last article couldn't be possible without the platform @deepdyve that makes journal papers cheaper.”@JoseServera