To carry out comparative analysis of the α-gliadin genes on A genomes of diploid and polyploid wheats, 8 full-length α-gliadin genes, including 3 functional genes and 5 pseudogenes, were obtained from diploid wheats, among which 2, 2 and 4 α-gliadin genes were isolated from T. urartu, T. monococcum, and T. boeoticum, respectively. The results indicated that higher number of α-gliadin pseudogenes have been present in diploid wheats before the formation of polyploid wheats. Amino acid sequence comparative analysis among 26 α-gliadin genes, including 16 functional genes and 10 pseudogenes, from diploid and polyploid wheats was conducted. The results indicated that all α-gliadins contained four coeliac toxic peptide sequences (i.e., PSQQ, QQQP, QQPY, and QPYP). The polyglutamine domains are highly variable, and the second polyglutamine stretch is usually disrupted by the lysine or arginine residue at the fourth position. The unique domain I is the most conserved domain. There are four and two conserved cysteine residues in the unique domains I and II, respectively. Comparative analysis indicated that the functional α-gliadin genes from A genome are highly conserved, whereas the identity of pseudogenes in diploid wheats are higher than those in hexaploid wheats. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that all the analyzed functional α-gliadin genes could be clustered into two major groups, among which one group could be further divided into 5 subgroups. The origin of α-gliadin pseudogene and functional genes were also discussed.
Russian Journal of Genetics – Springer Journals
Published: Nov 15, 2007
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