Dynamical aspects of three chloroplast promoters responding to change in light condition were examined in mature chloroplasts of wheat (Triticum aestivum) by in vitro transcription. The wheat psbD/C operon has four distinct promoters, two of which named as D/C-3 and D/C-4 promoters dominantly function in mature chloroplasts to produce the mRNAs encoding D2/CP43 and CP43 alone, respectively. Activity of the D/C-3 promoter in mature chloroplasts was reduced to less than 30% by 24 h dark adaptation and recovered by re-illumination to the original level within 30 to 60 min. The activation of the D/C-3 promoter which requires de novo cytoplasmic protein synthesis was induced by low fluence of light (e.g. 16 µE m-2 s-1), but the extent of activation increased with increasing light fluence. The accumulation of mRNAs from the D/C-3 promoter saturated at 2- to 3-fold higher level within 2 h when the dark-adapted seedlings were transferred to the lig at 72 µE m-2 s-1, concomitant with the increase in rate of D2 synthesis, suggesting that synthesis of D2 in mature chloroplasts is controlled via the D/C-3 promoter activity in a light-dependent way. Activity of the D/C-4 promoter slightly increased in the dark and decreased in the light. Effect of light on the psbA promoter activity was not observed at all in mature chloroplasts. In vitro transcriptional analysis of the D/C-3 promoter with 5′ deletion mutations revealed that at least two cis elements which are located within the sequences of -78 to -47 and -46 to -29 of the transcription initiation site, respectively, act as enhancing elements in the D/C-3 promoter. The light-switching element of the transcription, however, was suggested to be located in the core promoter sequence downstream of the -35 element.
Plant Molecular Biology – Springer Journals
Published: Sep 29, 2004
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