Lipids are the predominant source of energy for fish and are stored in fat depots in different parts of the body regions. This review focuses on visceral, subcutaneous and intramuscular adipose tissues that interfere with carcass and fillet yields and with flesh quality. The morphological, cellular and biochemical characteristics of these tissues are discussed as well as the different mechanisms involved in the regulation of their lipid metabolism. Particular emphasis is given to the modulation of these characteristics and mechanisms by different extrinsic (food composition, water parameters) and intrinsic (selective breeding, life cycle status) factors. This review focuses on recent studies that take into account the present challenges of fin-fish aquaculture, which are principally (1) the replacement of fish oil and meal by vegetable oil and meal due to the need for sustainability and the limited availability of fish to prepare food pellets, and (2) selective breeding programs to improve fish growth and flesh quality. These studies apply various modern technologies to different fish species, including the development of cell culture systems and transcriptomic and proteomic techniques. This review highlights that fish adipose tissues differ in their localization and their morphological characteristics and that they show a large plasticity in their responses to variations of both extrinsic and intrinsic factors. These different responses reinforce the idea of their differential participation in fish lipid homeostasis.
Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries – Springer Journals
Published: Sep 29, 2012
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