Characterisation of theDAACSFamily Escherichia coli Glutamate/Aspartate-Proton Symporter GltP Using Computational, Chemical, Biochemical and Biophysical Methods

Characterisation of theDAACSFamily Escherichia coli Glutamate/Aspartate-Proton Symporter GltP... Escherichia coli glutamate/aspartate-proton symporter GltP is a member of the Dicarboxylate/Amino Acid:Cation Symporter family of secondary active transport proteins. A range of computational, chemical, biochemical and biophysical methods characterised evolutionary relationships, structural features, substrate binding affinities and transport kinetics of wild-type and mutant forms of GltP. Sequence alignments and phylogenetic analysis revealed close homologies of GltP with human glutamate transporters involved in neurotransmission, neutral amino acid transporters and with the archaeal aspartate transporter GltPh. Topology predictions and comparisons with the crystal structure of GltPh were consistent with eight transmembrane-spanning α-helices and two hairpin re-entrant loops in GltP. Amplified expression of recombinant GltP with C-terminal affinity tags was achieved at 10% of total membrane protein in E. coli and purification to homogeneity with a yield of 0.8 mg/litre. Binding of substrates to GltP in native inner membranes and to purified protein solubilised in detergent was observed and quantified using solid-state NMR and fluorescence spectroscopy, respectively. A homology model of GltP docked with L-glutamate identified a putative binding site and residues predicted to interact with substrate. Sequence alignments identified further highly conserved residues predicted to have essential roles in GltP function. Residues were investigated by measuring transport activities, kinetics and response to thiol-specific reagents in 42 site-specific mutants compared with cysteine-less GltP (C256A) having an apparent affinity of initial rate transport (K m) for 3H-L-glutamate of 22.6 ± 5.5 μM in energised E. coli cells. This confirmed GltP residues involved in substrate binding and transport, especially in transmembrane helices VII and VIII. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png The Journal of Membrane Biology Springer Journals

Characterisation of theDAACSFamily Escherichia coli Glutamate/Aspartate-Proton Symporter GltP Using Computational, Chemical, Biochemical and Biophysical Methods

Loading next page...
 
/lp/springer_journal/characterisation-of-thedaacsfamily-escherichia-coli-glutamate-90HhN0df32
Publisher
Springer US
Copyright
Copyright © 2016 by Springer Science+Business Media New York
Subject
Life Sciences; Biochemistry, general; Human Physiology
ISSN
0022-2631
eISSN
1432-1424
D.O.I.
10.1007/s00232-016-9942-x
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Escherichia coli glutamate/aspartate-proton symporter GltP is a member of the Dicarboxylate/Amino Acid:Cation Symporter family of secondary active transport proteins. A range of computational, chemical, biochemical and biophysical methods characterised evolutionary relationships, structural features, substrate binding affinities and transport kinetics of wild-type and mutant forms of GltP. Sequence alignments and phylogenetic analysis revealed close homologies of GltP with human glutamate transporters involved in neurotransmission, neutral amino acid transporters and with the archaeal aspartate transporter GltPh. Topology predictions and comparisons with the crystal structure of GltPh were consistent with eight transmembrane-spanning α-helices and two hairpin re-entrant loops in GltP. Amplified expression of recombinant GltP with C-terminal affinity tags was achieved at 10% of total membrane protein in E. coli and purification to homogeneity with a yield of 0.8 mg/litre. Binding of substrates to GltP in native inner membranes and to purified protein solubilised in detergent was observed and quantified using solid-state NMR and fluorescence spectroscopy, respectively. A homology model of GltP docked with L-glutamate identified a putative binding site and residues predicted to interact with substrate. Sequence alignments identified further highly conserved residues predicted to have essential roles in GltP function. Residues were investigated by measuring transport activities, kinetics and response to thiol-specific reagents in 42 site-specific mutants compared with cysteine-less GltP (C256A) having an apparent affinity of initial rate transport (K m) for 3H-L-glutamate of 22.6 ± 5.5 μM in energised E. coli cells. This confirmed GltP residues involved in substrate binding and transport, especially in transmembrane helices VII and VIII.

Journal

The Journal of Membrane BiologySpringer Journals

Published: Dec 26, 2016

References

You’re reading a free preview. Subscribe to read the entire article.


DeepDyve is your
personal research library

It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.

Enjoy affordable access to
over 18 million articles from more than
15,000 peer-reviewed journals.

All for just $49/month

Explore the DeepDyve Library

Search

Query the DeepDyve database, plus search all of PubMed and Google Scholar seamlessly

Organize

Save any article or search result from DeepDyve, PubMed, and Google Scholar... all in one place.

Access

Get unlimited, online access to over 18 million full-text articles from more than 15,000 scientific journals.

Your journals are on DeepDyve

Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.

All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.

See the journals in your area

DeepDyve

Freelancer

DeepDyve

Pro

Price

FREE

$49/month
$360/year

Save searches from
Google Scholar,
PubMed

Create lists to
organize your research

Export lists, citations

Read DeepDyve articles

Abstract access only

Unlimited access to over
18 million full-text articles

Print

20 pages / month

PDF Discount

20% off