Characterisation of preparation layers in nine Danish Golden Age canvas paintings by SEM–EDX, FTIR and GC–MS

Characterisation of preparation layers in nine Danish Golden Age canvas paintings by SEM–EDX,... This study explores the materials used in the preparation layers of nine paintings from the Danish Golden Age as a first approach to understanding the variation in use of materials in the nineteenth century as well as the potential for their degradation. Paintings on canvas have traditionally been suspected to be particularly sensitive to high moisture levels because of the changing quality of materials in the nineteenth century. The explanations have partly included the mechanisation of production methods and partly a more experimental approach to painting. Additionally, collagen-based glue sizing of the canvas is suspected to respond dimensionally to changes in relative humidity. In this study, pigments, fillers and binding media in the preparation layers of nine paintings by different artists were identified using scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. The study shows a relatively low degree of variation in materials used in grounds. Surprisingly, no collagen-based binder was found in any of the nine paintings, suggesting that the canvases were not glue sized. All paintings contained calcium, lead, a drying oil and egg, even though only few contemporary recipes in painter’s manuals included egg as an ingredient for preparation layers. These results suggest that the commercial producers of prepared canvas may not have followed the manuals that were written for painters. Egg may have been added in order to increase flexibility and durability of ready primed canvases that were stored and sold in rolls. Moreover, the egg–oil emulsion has the advantage of being more viscous than a pure oil paint and could thus be used without sizing the canvas, rendering the primed canvas less stiff and less responsive to changes in relative humidity. The advantages of using egg in the ground are obvious, and this use, as well as the lack of glue size, has implications for the long-term preservation of the paintings in changing environmental conditions. These results imply that these particular paintings might be less sensitive to relative humidity changes than expected due to the lack of hygroscopic glue. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Heritage Science Springer Journals

Characterisation of preparation layers in nine Danish Golden Age canvas paintings by SEM–EDX, FTIR and GC–MS

Loading next page...
 
/lp/springer_journal/characterisation-of-preparation-layers-in-nine-danish-golden-age-b0J6FNELu5
Publisher
Springer International Publishing
Copyright
Copyright © 2017 by The Author(s)
Subject
Materials Science; Materials Science, general
eISSN
2050-7445
D.O.I.
10.1186/s40494-017-0147-0
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

References

You’re reading a free preview. Subscribe to read the entire article.


DeepDyve is your
personal research library

It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.

Enjoy affordable access to
over 12 million articles from more than
10,000 peer-reviewed journals.

All for just $49/month

Explore the DeepDyve Library

Unlimited reading

Read as many articles as you need. Full articles with original layout, charts and figures. Read online, from anywhere.

Stay up to date

Keep up with your field with Personalized Recommendations and Follow Journals to get automatic updates.

Organize your research

It’s easy to organize your research with our built-in tools.

Your journals are on DeepDyve

Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.

All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.

See the journals in your area

Monthly Plan

  • Read unlimited articles
  • Personalized recommendations
  • No expiration
  • Print 20 pages per month
  • 20% off on PDF purchases
  • Organize your research
  • Get updates on your journals and topic searches

$49/month

Start Free Trial

14-day Free Trial

Best Deal — 39% off

Annual Plan

  • All the features of the Professional Plan, but for 39% off!
  • Billed annually
  • No expiration
  • For the normal price of 10 articles elsewhere, you get one full year of unlimited access to articles.

$588

$360/year

billed annually
Start Free Trial

14-day Free Trial