Development of fusarium wilt was studied in 4-to 6-month-old tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum L., cv. Kunera). It was shown that the development of this disease could follow two patterns. When the wilt developed slowly (type I disease), the mycelium of Fusarium oxysporum fungus partly blocked the xylem and grew extensively within parenchyma. When the wilt developed fast (type II syndrome), the occlusion of both xylem and phloem was observed; the xylem sap circulation was suppressed and, consequently, tomato plant tissues were dehydrated. The development of type I and type II diseases led to suppression of photosynthetic activity in plants. In the case of slow wilt (type I), both light and dark stages of photosynthesis were damaged. This was evident from the decrease in the effectiveness of light harvesting and charge separations in the reaction centers of photosystem II (PSII), suppression of electron transport at the acceptor side of PSII, and the decrease in activity of Rubisco. In the case of fast wilt (type II), the Rubisco activity did not change, and photochemical activity of chloroplasts was suppressed to a smaller degree than during type I fusarium wilt. The decrease in the rate of linear electron transport in tomato leaves was mostly due to inhibition of electron flow at the acceptor side of PSII. The data obtained suggest that photosynthetic activity in tomato plants is suppressed by different mechanisms depending on the developmental pattern of fusarium wilt.
Russian Journal of Plant Physiology – Springer Journals
Published: Feb 24, 2006
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