1062-3604/03/3405- $25.00 © 2003
Russian Journal of Developmental Biology, Vol. 34, No. 5, 2003, pp. 317–320. Translated from Ontogenez, Vol. 34, No. 5, 2003, pp. 377–381.
Original Russian Text Copyright © 2003 by Radzinskaya, Nikol’skaya, Alekseeva, Vladimirova, Kovalenko, Ozernyuk.
The level of energy metabolism in animals under-
goes signiﬁcant changes during their development
(Wills, 1936; Vinberg and Shcherbakov, 1937; Hunter,
1964; Radzinskaya and Nikol’skaya, 1972, 1980; Guil-
let and Fourche, 1973; Zotin, 1974; Ozernyuk, 1985,
2000a; Gromysz-Kalkowska and Hubicka, 1988; Alek-
, 1991; Zotin and Zotina, 1993; Vladimirova
, 2000). The pattern of respiration intensity during
ontogenesis is related to speciﬁc features of their devel-
opment and, above all, to speciﬁc features of growth
and differentiation. At the early developmental stages,
the changes in this index are related mainly to the dif-
ferentiation of the energy supply system: substitution of
unspeciﬁc and, later, provisional organs of respiration
for the deﬁnitive ones and differentiation of the latter
(Kryzhanovskii, 1949; Soin, 1968; Shadrin, 1994;
Shadrin and Ozernyuk, 2002). The dynamics of the
mass of mitochondria in certain organs and tissues of
animals during their development is no less important.
Of special interest is the analysis of changes in res-
piration intensity during ontogenesis of invertebrates,
since they are diverse and complex. The available data
on respiration of these animals refer mostly to the
postembryonic development of invertebrates with sex-
ual reproduction. There are practically no data on oxy-
gen consumption at different stages of ontogenesis in
multicellular animals with asexual reproduction.
Hence, we have studied the dynamics of respiration
intensity in planarians during vegetative reproduction,
in molluscs during early development, and in develop-
ing insects with complete metamorphosis. A special
attention was paid to the analysis of the earliest stages
of development in molluscs and insects, since the intensity
of respiration in these animals was very little studied.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The laboratory culture of
laria, Trieloda) was taken as an example of vegetatively
reproducing animals. Oxygen consumption was mea-
sured in animals at different stages after their ﬁssion: on
the 2nd day and then within one day intervals.
Studies were also carried out on the molluscs
(Bivalvia, Unionida) and
(Gastropoda, Mesogastropoda). In the
, oxygen consumption was measured at the
beginning of cleavage, blastula, gastrula, and various
larval stages (glochidia) in the female body. The
embryos and larvae were excised from adults and
placed in a saline for poikilothermic animals, carefully
washed and tr5ansferred in Warburg ﬂasks with saline.
, oxygen consumption was measured in
the deﬁnitive larvae taken from the female body and
postnatal individuals at different phases of growth.
, oxygen consumption was mea-
sured in the embryos, larvae, prepupae, pupae, and
imago at different age.
BIOPHYSICS OF DEVELOPMENT
Changes in the Intensity of Respiration during Ontogenesis
of Some Invertebrates
L. I. Radzinskaya, I. S. Nikol’skaya
, T. A. Alekseeva, I. G. Vladimirova,
P. I. Kovalenko, and N. D. Ozernyuk
Kol’tsov Institute of Developmental Biology, Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Vavilova 26, Moscow, 119991 Russia
Received October 8, 2002; in ﬁnal form, January 31, 2003
—We studied the dynamic of respiration intensity during ontogenesis of ﬂat worms (
, and insects (
). In planarians
that reproduce vegetatively, the intensity of respiration increases just after ﬁssion and decreases at the subse-
quent phases of growth. In
, this index of metabolism increases during embryonic and early larval
development and decreases at the later developmental stages. In
, which develops in the female gen-
ital tract, the intensity of respiration remains unchanged during embryogenesis and decreases during late
embryogenesis and subsequent phases of growth. In
, the intensity of respiration increases dur-
ing embryonic and early larval development and then decreases to undergo cyclic changes times to molts. This
index markedly decreases in the pupae, increases in the beginning of imaginal period, and then again decreases.
: early ontogenesis, intensity of respiration,
Dugesia tigrina, Anodonta piscinalis, Viviparus vivi-
parus, Leptinoptarsa decemlineata