Molecular testing for mutations in the connexin 26 gene (GJB2) is a routine diagnostic analysis for subjects with hereditary hearing loss worldwide. However, till now there is no assessment of the diagnostic significance of this analysis for Russian patients, and there are difficulties in interpretation of the results of DNA diagnostics. In the present study, a sample of 705 patients with nonsyndromic autosomal recessive hearing loss from different regions of Russian Federation was investigated. A portion of DFNB1 hearing loss caused by mutations in the GJB2 gene among the sample was 46%. The frequency of DFNB1 hearing loss was 1:1000, that is, the frequency of isolated autosomal recessive hearing loss 1:500 in the population. It was found that each sixteenth individual in Russia is a heterozygous carrier of the mutation in the GJB2 gene. Totally, 20 pathological GJB2 alleles were detected; among them, a c.35delG mutation with the allelic frequency 81% prevails. Six most frequent mutations (c.35delG, c.313_326del14, c.23+1G>A (IVS1+1G>A), c.235delC, c.167delT, and p.Glu120del), which account for 95% of pathological GJB2 alleles, were detected. Mutations previously not described in the GJB2 gene (c.129delG, p.Gly200Arg, and c[Arg127His, Gly160Ser]) were found. An optimal algorithm of molecular testing of Russian patients which detects up to 100% of mutations in the GJB2 gene was suggested. Data concerning a clinical significance of p.Met34Thr and p.Val37Ile mutations are confirmed in the study. Eight polymorphic substitutions in the GJB2 gene which do not have clinical significance (p.Val27Ile, c.*3C>A, p.Val153Ile, p.Gly160Ser, c.Arg127His, p.Glu114Gly (c.341A>G), c.-45C>A, and p.Ala149Thr) were also detected.
Russian Journal of Genetics – Springer Journals
Published: Jan 5, 2012
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