The content and fractional composition of alcohol soluble phenolic acids (PhA) in cells with different degree maturation and lignification in the course of early and late wood formation in the pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stem during vegetation were studied. Phenolic compounds (PhC), extracted by 80% ethanol, were divided into free and bound fractions of PhA. In turn, the esters and ethers were isolated from bound PhA. The contents of all substances were calculated per dry weight and per cell. Considerable differences have been found to exist in both the contents and the composition of the fractions PhA on successive stages of tracheid maturation of early and late xylem. Early wood tracheids at all secondary wall thickening steps contained PhC less and free PhA more than late wood tracheids. Throughout earlywood tracheid maturation, the pool of free PhA per cell declined at the beginning of lignification and then increased gradually while that of bound PhA decreased. The maturation of late wood tracheids were accompanied by the rise of free PhA pool and the diminution of bound PhA pool. In the composition of bound PhA, the ethers were always dominant, and the amount of that in earlywood cells was less than in latewood cells. The cells of early xylem at all steps of maturation contained more of esters. The sum total of free hydroxycinnamic acids, precursors of monolignols, gradually decreased during early xylem lignification as the result of the reduction of the pools of p-coumaric, caffeic, ferulic and synapic acids, while that of their esters rised. In the course of late xylem lignification, the pools of free p-coumaric, ferulic and, especially, synapic acids increased. Simultaneously, the amount of ferulic acid ester and synapic acid ether increased too. According to the data, lignin biosynthesis in early xylem and late xylem occurs with different dynamics and the structure of lignins of two xylem types might be different too.
Russian Journal of Developmental Biology – Springer Journals
Published: Jul 13, 2012
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