ISSN 10214437, Russian Journal of Plant Physiology, 2012, Vol. 59, No. 2, pp. 183–189. © Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2012.
Published in Fiziologiya Rastenii, 2012, Vol. 59, No. 2, pp. 209–215.
Chilling stress, like other types of abiotic and biotic
stresses, induces oxidative processes in plant cells.
These processes are initiated by reactive oxygen spe
cies (ROS), which arise from disturbed operation of
electron transport chains and bring about various
manifestations of chilling damage . ROS interact
nonspecifically with many cellular components, trig
gering peroxidative reactions and causing significant
damage to essential macromolecules, such as photo
synthetic pigments, proteins, nucleic acids, and lipids,
and especially damaging the membranes . Cold
stress increases membrane permeability characterized
by the electrolyte leakage from tissues . Cell mem
branes also are damaged by ROS, resulting in mem
brane lipid peroxidation that can be used as a bio
chemical marker of cold stress in plants . These
changes all occur before visual morphological changes
manifesting after chilling stress. Therefore, monitor
ing and controlling of ROS levels is vital for plant cold
This text was submitted by the authors in English.
tolerance. Plants acclimate to environmental low tem
perature changes by scavenging ROS primarily due to
a number of cellular mechanisms that are associated
with a vast reprogramming of gene expression and
cause the changes in the membrane composition and
accumulation of cryoprotectants and antioxidants .
Coldtolerant genotypes have some advantages for
chickpea cultivation in Iran under low temperature,
because chickpea wintersowing, when temperatures
rarely fall below
even in shortterm periods has
advantages over traditionally springsowing, such as
the higher seed yield, waterusage efficiency, and
moist growing conditions during relatively mild win
ter. The main disadvantage of chickpea wintersowing
is the risk of winterkill. Therefore, there is potential
for expanding the range of chickpea wintersowing by
using traditional and nonconventional breeding for
improved cold tolerance. The black chickpea plants
are believed to be more tolerant to environmental
stresses , but few studies have been reported on their
physiological properties under lowtemperature stress.
However, cold tolerance is a complex phenomenon,
which depends on the nature of cold stress, its interac
tion with other environmental stresses, and the wide
range of plant responses. The study of physiological
responses of leaves in accessions (as an indicator of
Change in Antioxidant Responses against Oxidative Damage
in Black Chickpea Following Cold Acclimation
M. Nazari, R. Maali Amiri, F. H. Mehraban, and H. Z. Khaneghah
Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, University College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University
of Tehran, 3158777871, Karaj, Iran;
fax: 98–2612227605; email: email@example.com
Received October 22, 2010
—Cold stress is an important factor affecting chickpea (
L.) plants in winter and early
spring. We evaluated the effects of cold stress by measuring lipid peroxidation, membrane permeability, and
some enzyme activities involved in the ROSscavenging system under acclimation and nonacclimation con
ditions in black chickpea Kaka, a popular genotype planted, and accession 4322, as a landrace genotype.
Under nonacclimation conditions, the genotype 4322 prevented the H
accumulation more efficiently,
which led to a decrease in lipid peroxidation and membrane permeability compared to Kaka. Studying the
activities of antioxidant enzymes showed that catalase was more effective enzyme in cell protection against
in 4322 plants. Such response in acclimated plants was more pronounced than in control and non
acclimated plants. In this study, the increase in guaiacol peroxidase and ascorbate peroxidase activities did
not preserve cell membranes from oxidative damage in Kaka plants. It was observed that shortterm acclima
tion can induce greater cold tolerance upon the increase of oxidative stress in chickpea plants. This was due
to low levels of MDA and electrolyte leakage index, indicating the lower lipid peroxidation and higher mem
brane stability under the cold stress compared to nonacclimated plants.
, antioxidant enzymes, cold acclimation, cold stress, electrolyte leakage, lipid per
oxidation, oxidative damage.
: ANOVA—analysis of variance; APX—ascorbate
peroxidase; CAT—catalase; ELI—electrolyte leakage index;
GPX—guaiacol peroxidase; PPO—polyphenol oxidase.