CERAMIC COMPONENTS FOR INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE
E. B. Bendovskii
Translated from Novye Ogneupory, No. 8, pp. 51 – 54, August, 2013.
Original article submitted December 10, 2012.
Working cycles are described making it possible to develop manufacturing technology for a number of inter
nal combustion engine ceramic components. The operating efficiency of some of them under actual engine op
erating conditions is demonstrated. Results are provided for material research and development, intermediate
between metal and ceramic: a composite in a ceramic fiber – metal system. A complete manufacturing cycle
for a composite object is developed. It is shown that composite component operating capacity under actual en
gine conditions withstands more severe operating conditions than traditional components.
Keywords: ceramic components, high-modulus fiber, fiber – metal composite.
In 1972 an article was published that started with the
words: “If there is a magic word in the field of turbine manu-
facture, then it is the word ceramics” . Then we were talk-
ing about the fact that high-temperature alloys, from which
turbine blades were manufactured, had exhausted their oper-
ating temperature potential. In addition, each degree in a tur-
bine markedly increases its characteristics: power, thrust, ef-
ficiency, ecological effect, and many others. Probably an out-
come of the situation created is use of objects of refractory
inorganic materials (ceramics).
Of course, use of ceramic materials for structural pur
poses had developed before appearance of this article, but af
ter its publication the number of communications connected
with this problem increased considerably. The number of ci
tations in the Russian journal Khimiya devoted to silicon
nitride, one of the promising compounds, increased from 17
in 1970 to 200 in 1980 . Hope appeared of creating an
“adiabatic” engine. After communications about the problem
in mass media a feeling developed that the task was easily re
solved, although this did not remain so. Results achieved in
the field of using ceramic objects in the manufacture of an
internal combustion engine (ICE) are provided in this article.
From the very start it is evident that the problems to be
overcome were very complicated and complex, and different
in nature, i.e., scientific, technical, and organizational. Work
was aimed at ceramic components of an internal combustion
engine. Since we were talking about moving parts of engines
operating at high temperature under thermal shock condi
tions, in choosing a material for components it would be
preferable to select oxygen-free compounds, although from
the point of view of preparing components from them this
was far from an ideal choice. In addition, oxide materials
were not excluded from the field of view.
Silicon nitride was selected from the multitude of oxy-
gen-free compounds for operation according by the collec-
tion of known and proposed property indices, and in a num-
ber of cases silicon carbide was chosen. Work was carried
out embracing all stages of manufacture of ceramic compo-
nents: compound synthesis (silicon nitride synthesis was ac
complished both in powder form and in the form of a ce
ramic body); preparation of a moldable mix; molding of a ce
Refractories and Industrial Ceramics Vol. 54, No. 4, November, 2013
1083-4877/13/05404-0336 © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York
FGOU VPO M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Russia.
Fig. 1. Densely sintered silicon nitride ceramic piston.