Catching a wave: the formation of co-operatives in Finnish regions

Catching a wave: the formation of co-operatives in Finnish regions This paper compares the formation rates of co-operatives and conventional firms in Finland using regional data. The Finnish co-operative “wave” that began in the mid-1990s provides a useful setting for testing the hypothesis that co-operative formation rates are higher in depressed economic conditions. The empirical results support this hypothesis. Co-operatives are formed more often in regions with high unemployment; in contrast, conventional firms are formed more often when unemployment is low and demand growth is high. Furthermore, the existence of dedicated advisory services boosts the formation of co-operatives. These results indicate that co-operatives may play a useful role in reducing unemployment and that the formation of co-operatives may be influenced by policy measures. Small Business Economics Springer Journals

Catching a wave: the formation of co-operatives in Finnish regions

Loading next page...
Springer US
Copyright © 2012 by Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.
Economics / Management Science; Management/Business for Professionals; Microeconomics; Entrepreneurship; Industrial Organization
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site


You’re reading a free preview. Subscribe to read the entire article.

DeepDyve is your
personal research library

It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.

Enjoy affordable access to
over 12 million articles from more than
10,000 peer-reviewed journals.

All for just $49/month

Explore the DeepDyve Library

Unlimited reading

Read as many articles as you need. Full articles with original layout, charts and figures. Read online, from anywhere.

Stay up to date

Keep up with your field with Personalized Recommendations and Follow Journals to get automatic updates.

Organize your research

It’s easy to organize your research with our built-in tools.

Your journals are on DeepDyve

Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.

All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.

See the journals in your area

Monthly Plan

  • Read unlimited articles
  • Personalized recommendations
  • No expiration
  • Print 20 pages per month
  • 20% off on PDF purchases
  • Organize your research
  • Get updates on your journals and topic searches


Start Free Trial

14-day Free Trial

Best Deal — 39% off

Annual Plan

  • All the features of the Professional Plan, but for 39% off!
  • Billed annually
  • No expiration
  • For the normal price of 10 articles elsewhere, you get one full year of unlimited access to articles.



billed annually
Start Free Trial

14-day Free Trial