ISSN 1070-4272, Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, 2014, Vol. 87, No. 5, pp. 601−607. © Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2014.
Original Russian Text © A.R. Dubrovskii, S.A. Kuznetsov, E.V. Rebrov, J.C. Schouten, 2014, published in Zhurnal Prikladnoi Khimii, 2014, Vol. 87, No. 5, pp. 612−618.
One of promising lines in hydrogen power engineering
is direct arrangement on a vehicle of an integrated device
including a fuel processor in combination with a fuel cell.
The conversion of, e.g., natural gas in a fuel cell yields
hydrogen containing 10–12 vol % CO. The steam conver-
sion (SC) of carbon monoxide, H
O + CO
is used in the fuel cell for decreasing the CO concentra-
tion to 1 vol %, because CO poisons the catalyst of the
proton-exchange membrane of the fuel cell.
The steam conversion of carbon monoxide is per-
formed in two steps: (a) high-temperature reaction on
catalyst at 583–753 K and (b) low-
temperature reaction on the Cu/ZnO/Al
433–523 K. The Cu/ZnO/Al
catalyst used in low-
temperature SC occupies up to 70% of the volume of
the whole catalytic system; furthermore, it is pyrophoric
because of oxidation of Cu to Cu
O or CuO, which makes
it potentially hazardous. Therefore, search for a more
active and stable catalyst is a topical problem. Catalyst
capable to operate in the temperature intervals of both
high- and low-temperature SC are of indubitable interest.
It is known from published data that the Mo
C catalyst is
more active than Cu/ZnO/Al
[1–3] and exhibits high
stability under SC conditions [4–6].
Because SC is an equilibrium exothermal reaction, to
develop a reactor combining both SC steps it is necessary
to create a temperature gradient shifting the thermody-
namic equilibrium in the required direction.
The goal of this study is the development of a new
generation of highly active and stable catalysts in the
form of nanostructured coatings based on the Mo
system, capable to operate in the temperature intervals of
both high- and low-temperature steam conversion, and
the construction of a microstructured heat-exchanging
reactor for SC on the basis of this system.
To accomplish our goals, we used a set of electro-
chemical, physical, and mathematical methods. Electro-
Catalytic Coatings of New Generation Based
C and a Microstructured Reactor
for Steam Conversion of Carbon Monoxide
A. R. Dubrovskii
, S. A. Kuznetsov
, E. V. Rebrov
, and J. C. Schouten
Tananaev Institute of Chemistry and Technology of Rare Elements and Mineral Raw Materials,
Kola Scientiﬁ c Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, Akademgorodok 26a, Apatity, Murmansk oblast, 184209 Russia
School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Queen’s University of Belfast, Belfast,
Northern Ireland, the United Kingdom
Laboratory of Chemical Reactors, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, Netherlands
Received May 27, 2014
Abstract—Cathodic processes occurring in the course of molybdenum hemicarbide synthesis on molybdenum
C/Mo) were studied by cyclic voltammetry. The coatings synthesized were tested as catalysts in
steam conversion of carbon monoxide. The catalytic activity of the Mo
C/Mo system in this reaction is higher by
1–3 orders of magnitude than that of the commercial catalyst Cu/ZnO/Al
. A microstructured heat-exchanging
reactor was designed and fabricated on the basis of the kinetic data obtained.