CARBON-CERAMIC COMPOSITE MATERIALS
WITH PROTECTIVE EROSION-RESISTANT COATINGS
G. A. Kravetskii,
V. V. Rodionova,
Yu. M. Dvoryanchikov,
and S. A. Kolesnikov
Translated from Novye Ogneupory, No. 2, pp. 47 – 53, February, 2007.
Original article submitted March 31, 2006.
Results are presented for the development of production examples of creating refractory materials and struc
tures made from them for the metallurgical industry from carbon and ceramic carbide-forming substances.
Practical recommendations are proposed for creating integral structures of new refractory materials for
high-temperature processes with a limiting operating temperature of the corresponding carbide protective
coatings that exceeds the operating temperatures in air for graphite structural materials. by more than 1000°C.
Experimental studies are performed on 16 prepared reactor units for high-temperature chemical processes
with an absolute pressure within a reactor of 0.3 MPa and an operating temperature of 900°C. All of the tech
nical specifications for a chemical reactor for air tightness are fulfilled with a reserve of operating capacity.
On the basis of the main technology for preparing gra-
phitic materials  a whole series of forms of structural ma-
terials has been developed for special purposes. Among them
with a capacity to operate in oxidizing atmospheres there are
silicided graphites, carbon-ceramic composite materials,
structural graphites and carbon-carbon composite materials
with ceramic refractory coatings. These structural materials
are used in metallurgy, space technology, and as anti-friction
materials with liquid friction.
Currently carbon-carbon and carbon-ceramic materials
alongside structural graphite are finding a broader field of
application, for example: creation of chemical columns with
fittings made of corrosion-resistant carbon-carbon compo
sites ; outfits from the firm Hitco for protecting personnel
and equipment from high temperatures and splashes of mol
ten metal in metallurgy, the outfits operate up to 1500°C ;
corrosion-resistant graphite tubes in heat exchangers ;
space equipment, automobile and aircraft brakes, power en
gineering units ; chemical equipment building ; pro
duction fittings used for performing high-temperature pro
cesses ; creation of structural shells with increased
strength, reduced oxidation capacity for gases in chemical
high-temperature processes ; creation of articles that ope
rate in high-velocity gas streams, and also in gases and liquid
flows containing abrasives ; creation of refractory assem
blies for friction pairs ; development of sealing car
bon-carbon articles for crucibles, high-temperature dies, and
casting molds by applying at their surface a carbon slip made
of carbon materials, phenolformaldehyde resin, and then im-
pregnating the pyrocarbon obtained ; friction materials
consisting of silicon carbide filled with carbon fibers opera-
ting in oil; exhaust units for gas turbine engines .
Carbon-carbon structural materials (CCSM) appearing in
the last 10 – 15 years are prepared on the basis of carbon
fiber fillers and they exhibit a higher mechanical strength by
a factor of 10 – 15 compared with structural graphite. After
developing CCSM technology within the work for the Space
Shuttle (USA) and Buran (USSR) the technology for articles
made of these materials developed quite profoundly and its
reproduction under industrial conditions is not essentially
The scheme for the main production processes in form
ing carbide matrices within a porous volume of an original
carbon-ceramic material is presented in Fig. 1. In the first
heating stage (from 1000 to 1350°C) part of the silicon may
be oxidized by the residual oxygen and evaporated in the
form of SiO
. This leads to disturbance of the stoichiometric
ratio of silicon and carbon and requires introduction of addi
tional amounts of silicon. After melting the silicon at above
1410°C wetting of carbon sets in, at 1500°C there is spread
ing of it over the surface of a blank and capillary impreg
nation into the pore space of the carbon base. Intense reac
tion of carbon and silicon commences by the scheme
Si+C=SiC from 1750°C and it is mainly completed at
Refractories and Industrial Ceramics Vol. 48, No. 1, 2007
1083-4877/07/4801-0057 © 2007 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.
Federal State Unitary Enterprise (FGUP) NIIgraphit, Russia.