MANUFACTURING AND EQUIPMENT
CARBON-BASED REFRACTORY LINING COMPONENTS AND MATERIALS
AVAILABLE FROM THE CHELYABINSK ELECTRODE PLANT
A. A. Sviridov,
L. N. Ruzhevskaya,
and S. A. Podkopaev
Translated from Novye Ogneupory, No. 8, pp. 11 – 15, August, 2004.
Original article submitted June 23, 2004.
Carbon-based refractories for the lining of thermal power units for service in the ferrous and nonferrous metal
lurgy commercially available from the Chelyabinsk Electrode Plant Joint-Stock Co. (incorporated in the
Énergoprom-Management Co.) are considered. Technologies for the manufacture of advanced carbon
refractories are described. Routes towards further improvement of technologies for the manufacture of car
bon-based lining materials and components of a third generation are discussed.
In thermal power units of ferrous and nonferrous metal-
lurgy, carbon-based components and materials are used for
the refractory lining:
fired carbon blocks; for lining the bottom and sidewalls
in aluminum electrolyzers; for lining the bottom (hearth) of
hot and cold ramming mixes for filling the interblock
and peripheral brickwork joints and for fixing blooms in
blocks in aluminum electrolyzers; for filling the expansion
clearances between coolers and refractory brickwork, be
tween carbon and aluminosilicate blocks in blast furnaces;
pastes for filling narrow joints between carbon blocks in
the lining of blast furnaces;
carbon-containing concentrate as a component of refrac
tory mixes for tap-holes, hot-metal runners, and carbon blocks.
The Chelyabinsk Electrode Plant (ChEP) incorporated in
the Énergoprom-Management Co. is at present a manufac
turer of all these refractory materials. Initially, the basic raw
materials for preparing the first generation of carbon materi
als were thermoanthracite (calcined at 1200 – 1250°C),
blast-furnace or cupola coke, and medium-temperature pitch.
The thermally treated carbon based additives did not exceed
15% [1, 2]. The first generation carbon refractories displayed
rather high electric resistance, porosity, and ash content, low
heat conductivity, and low resistance to aggressive media
(infiltration of sodium or fluid iron, oxidation, and abrasive
Users of carbon refractories, interested in increasing the
service life of the lining for thermal power units and enhanc-
ing the production efficiency, present ever-increasing de-
mands on the quality of refractory products. As regards the
block products, this implies increasing the apparent and true
density, heat conductivity, and resistance to corrosion as well
as decreasing the modulus of elasticity, electrical resistance,
and porosity. Methods for increasing the durability of carbon
materials in aggressive media have been proposed that were
based on creating a dense surface layer or a compact struc
ture of the material, viz. surface coatings
; impregnation us
ing salts or coal-tar pitch [3, 4]; creating composite materials
with a carbide-containing carbon matrix.
Still, the most effi
cient means of protecting the lining from melt infiltration
and oxidation is believed to be the layer of solidified metal or
slag (scull). This layer protects the lining from chemical at
tack (oxidation) and erosion on exposure to fluids. With the
scull formed, the temperature of the hot surface of the lining
is lower than the solidification point of the fluid metal or
slag. To further increase the resistance in aggressive media,
one will need a technology for production of carbon blocks
with a high degree of structural compactness and increased
Refractories and Industrial Ceramics Vol. 46, No. 1, 2005
1083-4877/05/4601-0033 © 2005 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.
Chelyabinsk Electrode Plant Joint-Stock Co., Chelyabinsk, Russia.
Application No. 0633234, France.
Application No. 2686336, France.