MANUFACTURING AND EQUIPMENT
CARBON AND CARBON-CONTAINING REFRACTORY MATERIALS
FOR BLAST-FURNACES AT THE CHELYABINSK ELECTRODE PLANT
S. A. Podkopaev,
L. N. Ruzhevskaya,
and I. V. Rybyanets
Translated from Novye Ogneupory, No. 6, June, 2004, pp. 16 – 18.
Original article submitted April 15, 2004.
The effect of SiC additives and the granular composition on porosity, abrasive resistance, and endurance of
carbon refractory blocks used in the blast-furnace steel-making technology. The use of microporous refractory
blocks makes it possible to extend the blast-furnace production campaign by several years. The high effi-
ciency of low heat-conducting cold-rammed mixes and a carbon-containing concentrate (available from ChEP
JSC) is discussed.
Since 1997, at the Chelyabinsk Electrode Plant Joint-
Stock Co. (ChEP JSC), new types of refractory carbon
blocks and cold-rammed mixtures have been developed for
the refractory lining of blast furnaces aimed at extending
their service life.
In an operating blast furnace, the carbon blocks are ex
posed to high thermal stress, infiltration of molten iron,
structural degradation, and abrasive wear. Finally, the carbon
blocks undergo cracking and develop brittleness. This results
in the reduction of heat conductivity and initiates melting of
the hardened layer of metal, the so-called scull, which serves
as a protection for the walls and bottom of the blast-furnace
All these factors adversely affect the carbon lining and
lead to its degradation.
To make the refractory blocks reliable in service, one
will have to improve their properties such as density, heat
conductivity, microporous structure, and resistance to abra
A survey of the literature has shown that effective tech
niques for creating a dense microporous structure of carbon
1. Introduction of special ceramic additives resistant to
molten iron which are capable of forming a close-packed
2. Impregnation of carbon blocks with coal-tar pitch.
3. Introduction of special additives capable of forming
crystal whiskers in the pores of the carbon material when
subjected to heat treatment .
Adding graphite to the base mixture and impregnating it
with coal-tar pitch improve the density and heat conductivity
of the carbon-graphite material. Ceramic additives (specifi
cally, silicon carbide) increase resistance of the blocks to
abrasive wear. Adding silicon carbide and a filler with con
trolled granular composition makes it possible to reduce the
pore size (with a radius greater than 3 ìm).
Integral pore size distribution curves for the blocks with
SiC added and commercial blast-furnace blocks (DBU-0
grade) are shown in Fig. 1. The block’s porous structure is
primarily determined by the particle size of both the filler
and silicon carbide. Integral pore size distribution curves for
coarse-grained and fine-grained silicon carbide added to the
mixture are shown in Fig. 2. The addition of silicon carbide
of still finer dispersity produced no visible effect. An expla
nation of the fact may be the property of finely dispersed par
ticles to coagulate because of their high surface energy.
Refractories and Industrial Ceramics Vol. 45, No. 5, 2004
1083-4877/04/4505-0317 © 2004 Springer Science + Business Media, Inc.
Chelyabinsk Electrode Plant Joint-Stock Co. (ChEP JSC), Che