Much of the DNA in genomes is organized within gene families and hierarchies of gene superfamilies. DNA methylation is the main epigenetic event involved in gene silencing and genome stability. In the present study, we analyzed the DNA methylation status of the prolactin (PRL) superfamily to obtain insight into its tissue-specific expression and the evolution of its sequence diversity. The PRL superfamily in mice consists of two dozen members, which are expressed in a tissue-specific manner. The genes in this family have CpG-less sequences, and they are located within a 1-Mb region as a gene cluster on chromosome 13. We tentatively grouped the family into several gene clusters, depending on location and gene orientation. We found that all the members had tissue-dependent differentially methylated regions (T-DMRs) around the transcription start site. The T-DMRs are hypermethylated in nonexpressing tissues and hypomethylated in expressing cells, supporting the idea that the expression of the PRL superfamily genes is subject to epigenetic regulation. Interestingly, the DNA methylation patterns of T-DMRs are shared within a cluster, while the patterns are different among the clusters. Finally, we reconstituted the nucleotide sequences of T-DMRs by converting TpG to CpG based on the consideration of a possible conversion of 5-methylcytosine to thymine by spontaneous deamination during the evolutionary process. On the phylogenic tree, the reconstituted sequences were well matched with the DNA methylation pattern of T-DMR and orientation. Our study suggests that DNA methylation is involved in tissue-specific expression and sequence diversity during evolution.
Mammalian Genome – Springer Journals
Published: Dec 23, 2011
It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.
Enjoy affordable access to
over 18 million articles from more than
15,000 peer-reviewed journals.
All for just $49/month
Query the DeepDyve database, plus search all of PubMed and Google Scholar seamlessly
Save any article or search result from DeepDyve, PubMed, and Google Scholar... all in one place.
Get unlimited, online access to over 18 million full-text articles from more than 15,000 scientific journals.
Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.
All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.
“Hi guys, I cannot tell you how much I love this resource. Incredible. I really believe you've hit the nail on the head with this site in regards to solving the research-purchase issue.”Daniel C.
“Whoa! It’s like Spotify but for academic articles.”@Phil_Robichaud
“I must say, @deepdyve is a fabulous solution to the independent researcher's problem of #access to #information.”@deepthiw
“My last article couldn't be possible without the platform @deepdyve that makes journal papers cheaper.”@JoseServera