Einkorn wheat, Triticum monococcum L. (2n = 2x = 14, AmAm genome), is a primitive, cultivated form of diploid wheat. The shortcoming of einkorn is that it lacks the free-threshing habit. Early heading and semi-dwarf traits are also required to fit modern agricultural practice. In the present study we developed T. monococcum pre-breeding germplasm having early, free threshing traits by utilizing an early heading source, two sources of soft glume (spike) and three sources of semi-dwarfism to combine their phenotypes into pre-breeding materials. We found two different genes determined free threshing of einkorn wheat. One of them was the sog (soft glume) gene from Triticum sinskajae Filat. et Kurkiev (2n = 2x = 14, AmAm genome) and another was the sos (soft spike) gene, which was completely linked or pleiotropic with the gene for semi-dwarfism. The genes sos, spd (short peduncle) and sd17654 (semi-dwarf CItr 17654) were utilized to develop semi-dwarf T. monococcum lines. Field performance of 6 early and free-threshing pre-breeding materials with sos and spd genes were tested over three crop seasons. Five semi-dwarf pre-breeding materials (PBMs) were obtained. However, these materials had slightly less grain yield than #252 (tall and hulled check) and PBM-1 (tall free-threshing check). Harvest index of the pre-breeding materials was improved due to the presence of sos and spd genes. If optimized cultivation practice is performed, these pre-breeding materials can be utilized as sources of early, free-threshing and semi-dwarf traits to produce modern T. monococcum varieties.
Euphytica – Springer Journals
Published: Aug 4, 2017
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