BOUNDARY CONDITIONS FOR DESIGNING THE LINING
OF A GLASS-FOUNDING FURNACE WITH INNOVATIVE PARAMETERS
TO IMPROVE TECHNICAL EFFICIENCY
V. Ya. Dzyuzer
and V. S. Shvydkii
Translated from Novye Ogneupory, No. 12, pp. 9 – 12, December, 2015.
Original article submitted July 14, 2015.
This article presents results obtained from numerical modeling of external heat exchange in an innovative
gas-fired glass-founding furnace with an output of 2.92 tons/m
·day). Unit heat consumption in the furnace is
4.187 MJ/kg. Boundary conditions are determined for designing and building a lining for the working space of
the furnace. It is established that the average and maximum temperatures are 1512.6 and 1608.4°C for the
roof, 1548.3 and 1596.3°C for the longitudinal wall (on the burner side of the furnace), and 1553.2 and
1622.2°C for the end wall (next to the flow). The average temperatures of the surface of the bath in the found-
ing and fining zones are 1404.8 and 1426.6°C, respectively.
Keywords: glass-founding furnace, external heat exchange, mathematical modeling, boundary conditions,
lining, temperature, heat flux.
One important problem in the production of commercial
glass is the need to increase the unit productivity of
glass-founding furnaces to 3 tons/(m
·day) with a unit heat
£ 4.187 MJ/kg (1000 kcal/kg) while avoid-
ing additional electric heating. Thus, we are discussing pa
rameters for technical efficiency that presently are without
equal in the world’s glass industry. The length time between
repairs to furnaces should be 9 – 10 years, and the amount of
glass produced per campaign from each 1 m
of the founding
basin should exceed 9000 tons/m
. Obviously, such a level of
efficiency can be achieved only if the lining of the furnaces is
compatible with the parameters of their thermal operation.
The structure of the lining of glass-founding furnaces is
determined by the load in the working space and the allow
able heat loss to the environment. For high-productivity fur
naces, the thermal load in the working space reaches
, while the maximum allowable heat loss through
the thermally insulated sections of the lining is 500 –
. On the whole, the amount of heat lost through the
lining of the furnace should not exceed 7% of the total heat
input in the heat balance.
The lining of a continuous furnace is designed on the ba-
sis of results from calculation of steady-state heat transfer
through a multilayered wall. Here, the method used to assign
the boundary conditions is determined by the reliability of
the initial data on the temperature of the gaseous medium in
the working space or on the surface of the wall. In a
glass-founding furnace, combustion of the gas takes place in
a turbulent flame. This makes it impossible to determine the
effective temperature of the combustion products in the
working space. As a result, heat transfer is calculated with a
mixed formulation of boundary conditions of types I and III
. The main boundary condition in the calculations is the
temperature to which the corresponding structural elements
of the furnace are heated (the heating temperature).
The roof and the longitudinal and end walls are treated
differently in designing the lining of the working space of a
glass-founding furnace. Both moderate heating temperatures
and maximum (local) heating temperatures should be as
signed for these elements. The main boundary condition for
the lining of the founding basin is the average temperature of
the molten glass in the founding and fining zones. It is clear
that these temperatures cannot be determined experimentally.
In turn, the level of innovation of the parameters that are be
ing used to characterize the technical efficiency of furnaces
precludes the use of the empirical data which has been ob
Refractories and Industrial Ceramics Vol. 56, No. 6, March, 2016
1083-4877/16/05606-0597 © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media New York
Ural Federal University, Ekaterinburg, Russia.