Eur J Plast Surg (2003) 26:273–274 DOI 10.1007/s00238-003-0528-3 LETTER T O THE EDIT OR Gurminder Singh · Martin B. H. Kelly Received: 10 March 2003 / Accepted: 6 May 2003 / Published online: 17 June 2003 © Springer-Verlag 2003 Botox is a purified crystalline form of exotoxin type A The physiological adversities of botox have been ex- produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. Its tensively reviewed . Local complications such as mechanism of action is to inhibit the release of acetyl- pain, oedema, ecchymosis, and short-term hyperaesthe- choline at the neuromuscular junction, with a dose- sia may be related to the injection site. Immunological related response that is maximal 5–7 days after injection complications such as acute type I reactions have been . Temporary muscle fibre atrophy and demyelinative reported, and systemic reactions include nausea, malaise, changes at the nerve terminal occur. However, axonal re- and distant rashes. Dose-related complications include sprouting gradually reverses the paralysis, so that normal the unwanted loss of facial expression (‘mask-like’ faces) function returns within 3–6 months, and the drug has no and incomplete muscle paralysis, leaving residual reported long-lasting effects. However, this may not be rhytides. Rarely, dissemination of the drug into the
European Journal of Plastic Surgery – Springer Journals
Published: Sep 1, 2003
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