1067-4136/00/3106- $25.00 © 2000
Russian Journal of Ecology, Vol. 31, No. 6, 2000, pp. 415–421. Translated from Ekologiya, No. 6, 2000, pp. 449–455.
Original Russian Text Copyright © 2000 by Protasov, Sinitsyna.
The bivalve mollusk
is characterized by a great variation in shell color, pat-
tern, and shape (Zhadin, 1952; Biochino, 1994;
Biochino and Slyn’ko, 1990; Marsden
, 1996) and
by a great diversity in the biochemical and genetic
, 1989; Boileau and Hebert,
1994a, 1994b; Soroka, 1997).
Analyzing the distribution of ﬁve phenotypes (Biochino
and Slyn’ko, 1990; Biochino, 1994) or six phenotypes
, 1993), specialists distinguished several
groups of these mollusks in the species range within the
European part of the former Soviet Union.
As zebra mussels are invading the water bodies of
North America, the species range expands rapidly
, 1989; Mackie and Schloesser, 1996).
This raises the problem of studying their variation in a
wide geographic scale but does not make the analysis of
small-scale (biotopic) variation less important.
The purpose of this study was to compare the varia-
tion of shell color and pattern in zebra mussels from
different biotopes and to discuss modern views on the
phenogeography of this species.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Samples were taken over three years (1995–1997)
from the Dnieper in the vicinities of Kiev and from
water bodies and canals comprising the cooling system
of the Konin and Patnow thermal power plants (the
Konin lake system, central Poland). These power
plants, taking water for cooling and discharging it
, create circulation in the entire sys-
tem of lakes and canals (Afanas’ev
, 1996). Sam-
pling stations are distributed along the ﬂow in the fol-
(1) The water intake canal of the Konin Power Plant,
depth 3 m, ﬂow rate 0.5 m/s, water temperature
(the lowest in the system). Sandy bottom with
(2) The same canal; substratum: stones reinforcing
the slopes of the canal, depth 1 m.
(3) The reservoir accumulating the water heated to
after cooling the condensers of the power
plant. Samples were taken from the “lee” side of the
overﬂow dam, where the water temperature does not
C due to heated water mixing with deeper
layers. Substratum: stones, depth 1–2.5 m.
(4) The same reservoir 100 m downstream from the
dam. Water temperature during sampling
stratum for zebra mussels: the shells of Unionidae mol-
lusks, depth 3 m.
(5) The same reservoir in the segment opposite to
the site of heated water discharge; water temperature
. Substratum: stones near the water edge.
(6) The Mozeslawski Canal supplying water from
the Warta River to replace water loss by evaporation and
runoff. This section of the canal receives heated water
from the reservoir, and, hence, temperature in it reaches
. Substratum: Unionidae shells, depth 3 m.
(7) Lake Lichenskie at the mouth of the water dis-
charge canal of the power plant; water temperature
. Substratum for zebra mussels consisted of the
shells of large mollusks. In 1996, the samples were
taken at some distance from the discharge canal, and
the water temperature did not exceed
(8) The section of the Piotrkowicki Canal from Lake
Lichenskie to the pump house, which supplies addi-
tional cooling water to Lake Slesinskie; water temper-
. Substratum: Unionidae shells, depth 2.5 m.
(9) The section of the same canal downstream from
the pump house, water temperature
small stones, depth 3 m.
(10) The canal from Lake Slesinskie (the outlet of
the system), water temperature
. Samples were
Biotopic Variation and Phenogeography of
A. A. Protasov and O. O. Sinitsyna
Institute of Hydrobiology, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, pr. Geroev Stalingrada 12, Kiev, 04210 Ukraine
Received July 14, 1998
—The phenetic structure of
populations in different water bodies is consid-
ered. The phenotypes of shell pattern and sculpture are identiﬁed and described using a scheme based on “ele-
mentary” characters, or pattern elements. It is shown that the frequencies of phenes in mollusks from different
biotopes of the cooling system of two thermal power plants differ signiﬁcantly. The data on species phenogeog-
raphy are reviewed.
, species range, pattern phenotype, phenogeography, cooling reservoir