Physiological, biochemical, and genetic aspects of carotenoid biosynthesis in the chloroplast membranes of green algae and higher plants are discussed starting from the earliest stages of biosynthesis of key C5-isoprene units. The latter are synthesized either from acetate (C2) to mevalonic acid (C6) or from glucose (C6) by forming glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (C3) and pyruvate decarboxylation product (C2) through intermediate compounds to isopentenyl diphosphate (C5). In all organisms, the further carotenoid synthesis from isopentenyl diphosphate and its isomer dimethylallyl diphosphate (C5) proceeds through their transformation into geranyl diphosphate (C10), farnesyl diphosphate (C15), geranylgeranyl diphosphate (C20) and phytoene (C40). Phytoene desaturation (dehydrogenation) to carotene, neurosporene, and lycopene, and all steps of their cyclization to α, β and ε carotenes are discussed in detail. The synthesis of xanthophylls in chloroplasts is presented as the sequential formation of hydroxy-, epoxy- and oxo- groups. Genetic control of biosynthesis, as well as the localization and functional role of carotenoids in the chloroplast membranes of plants and algae are briefly discussed.
Russian Journal of Plant Physiology – Springer Journals
Published: Oct 8, 2004
It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.
Enjoy affordable access to
over 18 million articles from more than
15,000 peer-reviewed journals.
All for just $49/month
Query the DeepDyve database, plus search all of PubMed and Google Scholar seamlessly
Save any article or search result from DeepDyve, PubMed, and Google Scholar... all in one place.
Get unlimited, online access to over 18 million full-text articles from more than 15,000 scientific journals.
Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.
All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.
“Hi guys, I cannot tell you how much I love this resource. Incredible. I really believe you've hit the nail on the head with this site in regards to solving the research-purchase issue.”Daniel C.
“Whoa! It’s like Spotify but for academic articles.”@Phil_Robichaud
“I must say, @deepdyve is a fabulous solution to the independent researcher's problem of #access to #information.”@deepthiw
“My last article couldn't be possible without the platform @deepdyve that makes journal papers cheaper.”@JoseServera