ISSN 1070-4272, Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, 2015, Vol. 88, No. 3, pp. 463−472. © Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2015.
Original Russian Text © S.S. Kamanin, V.A. Arlyapov, A.V. Machulin, V.A. Alferov, A.N. Reshetilov, 2015, published in Zhurnal Prikladnoi Khimii, 2015, Vol. 88,
No. 3, pp. 458−467.
AND ION EXCHANGE PROCESSES
Biosensors Based on Modiﬁ ed Screen-Printed
Enzyme Electrodes for Monitoring
of Fermentation Processes
S. S. Kamanin
, V. A. Arlyapov
, A. V. Machulin
, V. A. Alferov
, and A. N. Reshetilov
Tula State University, pr. Lenina 92, Tula, 300012 Russia
Skryabin Institute of Microorganism Biochemistry and Physiology, Russian Academy of Sciences,
pr. Nauki 5, Pushchino, Moscow oblast, 142290 Russia
Received December 23, 2014
Abstract—Biosensor array based on modiﬁ ed screen-printed electrodes containing enzymes (glucose oxidase,
alcohol oxidase, lactate oxidase, mixture of glucose oxidase and -amylase) immobilized in a membrane of
cross-linked bovine serum albumin was developed for the determination of the content of glucose, ethanol, lactic
acid, and starch in fermentation media. The analytical and metrological characteristics of the developed biosen-
sor system were determined. Samples of the fermentation mass and of alcoholic and fermented milk products
were analyzed. Statistical analysis of the results obtained showed that the results of determining the content of
glucose, ethanol, lactic acid, and starch with the developed biosensor system and by reference methods differed
insigniﬁ cantly. The developed biosensor system is considered as a base for fabricating a prototype of an analyzer
for use in fermentation biotechnology.
The content of starch, glucose, lactate, and ethanol is
an important parameter of the fermentation process .
Starch-containing products (potatoes, corn, rye, millet,
etc.) are in this case the raw material for fermentation.
Glucose is formed by starch hydrolysis and acts as
a substrate for yeast microorganisms using it for the
production of the target component, ethanol. When
performing processes based on lactic acid fermentation
(production of kvass and keﬁ r), lactic acid is one of
glucose fermentation products. In addition, lactate is a
by-product from the activity of many microorganisms,
and its content in the ﬁ nal product makes it possible to
conclude whether it was obtained by natural fermentation
process or not.
Differential evaluation of the content of the above
components in different stages of the fermentation process
allows optimizing the process and making it less material-
and time-consuming by bringing in correspondence the
quality of the raw material and the amount of the enzymes
and yeast mass used . The impact on the environment
will simultaneously decrease.
Traditional analytical methods used for monitoring
fermentation processes are either insufﬁ ciently selective
(pycnometry, refractometry, polarimetry) or expensive,
requiring time-consuming sample preparation and
long analysis time (gas–liquid chromatography, high-
performance liquid chromatography). These methods
can be efﬁ ciently used for monitoring the quality of
ﬁ nal products, but are unsuitable for prompt analysis
of fermentation media. Therefore, the development of a
simple and cheap method for monitoring fermentation
processes is a topical problem.
The use of biosensors based on screen-printed
electrodes for this purpose is a promising approach.
Such electrodes are small, multifunctional, and can
be produced in large amounts. The advantages of this
production technology allowed enzymatic biosensors
based on screen-printed electrodes (glucometers) to