The diversity of bacteria metabolizing nitriles of carbonic acids was studied in soils of the Perm region affected by human activities. Effective methods for selective isolation of cultures possessing the nitrile hydratase and nitrilase activities were developed. Most microorganisms capable of utilizing nitriles were Grampositive Nocardia-like bacteria of the genus Rhodococcus. Isolates with a detectable nitrilase activity were also represented by Gram-negative forms (Gram-negative aerobic/microaerophilic bacilli and cocci of the genera Pseudomonas, Azomonas, Azotobacter, and Acidovorax). Two enzyme systems for nitrile hydrolysis were found in 27% of cultures. The nitrile hydratase and nitrilase activities of the studied strains exceeded these enzymatic activities in bacteria isolated from native soils, which indicates that natural selection of saprophytic microflora occurs in chemically altered soils.
Russian Journal of Ecology – Springer Journals
Published: May 9, 2007
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