Bioaccessibility of phenolic compounds, lutein, and bioelements of preparations containing Chlorella vulgaris in artificial digestive juices

Bioaccessibility of phenolic compounds, lutein, and bioelements of preparations containing... Chlorella vulgaris Beijerinck is a spherical, green alga belonging to the genus Chlorella and family Chlorellaceae. It has high nutritional value and shows multiple biological effects. Dietary supplements that contain extracts of C. vulgaris are sold in the form of tablets, capsules, powders, and aqueous solutions. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to determine the content of bioelements (zinc, iron, and magnesium), phenolic compounds, and lutein before and after incubation with artificial digestive juices from preparations containing C. vulgaris. In this study, we used commercial preparations in the form of powder and tablets. The samples were incubated in artificial gastric juice and then in artificial intestinal juice for 30 and 90 min. The contents of bioelements were determined by using the flame atomic absorption spectrometric method. Lutein and phenolic compounds were analyzed by high-pressure liquid chromatography. We also aimed to evaluate the quality of chlorella- containing formulations by using the methods described in the European Pharmacopoeia 8th edition. According to the results, the preparations containing C. vulgaris demonstrated the presence of phenolic compounds and lutein. Therefore, daily supple- mentation of preparations containing C. vulgaris substantiates its usefulness for humans. The qualitative composition of the examined organic substances and bioelements was found to be in accordance with the manufacturer’s declarations on the packaging containing C. vulgaris compared with the control samples; however, the contents of bioelements were found to be negligible after incubation with artificial digestive juices. This shows that the examined preparations containing C. vulgaris are not good sources of bioelements such as zinc, iron, or magnesium. . . . . Keywords Chlorella vulgaris Dietary supplements Lutein Phenolic compounds Artificial digestive juice Introduction time for people to follow the rules of a well-balanced diet. Therefore, there is considerable interest among people to bal- A sharp increase in the sales of nutritional supplements for ance their nutritional status with pharmacological sources of particular uses and also an increase in over-the-counter (OTC) essential bioelements (e.g., zinc, iron, and magnesium) and medicines have been observed in recent years. This can be biologically active substances taken in the form of readily avail- attributed to the fast pace of life, and most of all, to the lack of able and assimilable preparations (e.g., tablets, powders, and syrups) distributed primarily through pharmacies. It is important to check and analyze not only the market of dietary supplements * Bożena Muszyńska and the honesty of promises presented by the manufacturers in muchon@poczta.fm their advertisements but also the content of active ingredients in these preparations. Some of the OTC formulas, dietary supple- Department of Pharmaceutical Botany, Faculty of Pharmacy, ments, and functional foods fulfilling the demand for most of the Jagiellonian University Medical College, Medyczna 9 St., nutrients affect health contain algae. Preparations containing 30-688 Kraków, Poland algae are available as ready-made preparations: powders— Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of lyophilizates, tablets, pills, and capsules and are commonly used Pharmacy, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Medyczna 9 St., 30-688 Kraków, Poland in the production of cosmetics (Görs et al. 2010). Chlorella vulgaris Beijerinck is a spherical, single-celled Chair and Department of Applied Pharmacy, Medical University of Lublin, Chodźki 1, 20-093 Lublin, Poland freshwater alga from the Chlorellaceae. It contains numerous 1630 J Appl Phycol (2018) 30:1629–1640 bioactive organic and inorganic substances that exhibit health produced primarily in higher plants and algae. Lutein is an promoting properties; for example, it is has antihypertensive, important compound with antioxidant activity found in anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anticancer, and C. vulgaris and is essential for humans (Koushan et al. immunostimulatory properties as well as it also improves 2013). Lutein is the intracellular product of C. vulgaris,and brain function (Suetsuna and Chen 2001; Tokusoglu 2003; thus lutein-rich Chlorella may be developed as a high-value Terés et al. 2008; Seyfabadi et al. 2011;Přibyl et al. 2013). health food (Shi et al. 1997). Kwak et al. (2012) performed experiment on a group of 40 In this study, we aimed to determine the content of healthy volunteers and demonstrated the immunomodulatory bioelements because of their physiological role (in human effects of a C. vulgaris extract. According to their results, there metabolism by building blocks and being enzymes activators). was an increase in the cytotoxic activity of natural killer cells Zinc is responsible for growth and proper functioning of the and an increase in the concentration of interferon-γ and immune system (Livingstone 2015). Iron is an essential ele- interleukin-1β after 8-week administration of C. vulgaris ex- ment in cellular aerobic respiration. Magnesium is the second tract in the form of tablets. Oral administration of aqueous most abundant intracellular cation and is an essential element extract of C. vulgaris in mice decreased the production of responsible for maintenance of life. It is involved in various IgE-antibodies and simultaneously increased the mRNA ex- cellular functions and enzymatic reactions (Baaij 2015). pression of T helper cell cytokines, including interferon-γ and Because of their high nutritional value and multiple beneficia- interleukin-12 (Hasegawa et al. 1999). The mechanism of an- ry effects, dietary supplements containing C. vulgaris extracts ticancer activity of C. vulgaris extracts also involves the stim- are available in the market in the form of tablets, capsules, ulation of production and maturation of granulocytes and powders, and aqueous solutions. Numerous studies have de- macrophages (Justo et al. 2001). scribed the content of biologically active substances in dietary Compounds that are responsible for the aforementioned supplements of C. vulgaris (Seyfabadi et al. 2011;Koushan biological activities are among others phenolic compounds, et al. 2013;Přibyl et al. 2013). However, to the best of our xanthophylls such as lutein, and bioelements such as zinc, knowledge, this is the first study to determine the content of iron, and magnesium. These substances are also specified by bioelements (zinc, iron, and magnesium), phenolic com- the manufacturers of C. vulgaris dietary supplements. pounds, and lutein in preparations containing C. vulgaris after Phenolic compounds exhibit a wide spectrum of biological incubation with artificial digestive juices (under conditions activities that are attributed to their strong antioxidant activity that stimulate the human gastrointestinal tract) which demon- and have the ability to protect important cellular structures strate their bioavailability. The secondary aim was to evaluate such as cell membranes, structural proteins, enzymes, mem- the quality of chlorella-containing formulations by using the brane lipids, or nucleic acids against oxidative damage methods described in the European Pharmacopoeia 8th edi- tion ( 2013). (Terpinc and Abramovic 2010). Phenolic compounds found in the methanolic extract of C. vulgaris may be responsible for its higher antioxidant activity (Aremu et al. 2016;Muszyńska et al. 2016). Materials and methods It has been demonstrated that phenolic compounds found in C. vulgaris prevent the activity of free radicals thereby Materials preventing the peroxidation of cell membranes of liver cells. This indicates that C. vulgaris has hepatoprotective activity Dietary supplements containing Chlorella vulgaris from a (Peng et al. 2009). Phenolic compounds from C. vulgaris commercial origin, two preparations in the powdered form show potential antioxidant activity by neutralizing free and four in the tablet form, were evaluated (Table 1). Names radicals and prevent DNA damage, which in turn prevents of the dietary supplements were changed to Chlorella S, A, O, tumorigenesis. Furthermore, the extracts of C. vulgaris M, B, and C to retain privacy. activate apoptosis in tumor cells. Yusof et al. (2010)demon- strated the in vitro antitumor activity using HepG2 hepatocel- lular carcinoma cells after incubating the cells with extracts of Reagents C. vulgaris obtained using a hot method. Their results showed an increased expression of proteins such as p53 (transcription All phenolic compounds used in this study were of standard factor regulating the activation of DNA repair mechanisms high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) grade. p- and apoptosis in response to DNA damage), enhanced activity Coumaric was from Fluka (Switzerland) and p- of Bax (proteins affecting an accelerated rate of the apoptosis hydroxybenzoic acid, cinnamic acid, kaempferol-7- process), caspase-3, and decrease in production of Bcl-2 pro- rhamnoside, apigenin, and the xanthophyll lutein were pur- teins (B-cell lymphoma 2) that accelerate the apoptosis of chased from Sigma-Aldrich (USA). Epigallocatechin and epi- tumor cells (Yusof et al. 2010). Naturally occurring lutein is gallocatechin gallate were from ChromaDex (USA). J Appl Phycol (2018) 30:1629–1640 1631 Table 1 Dietary supplements containing Chlorella vulgaris which were Apparatus used in study The release of active compounds from the preparations con- Product preparation Form Expiry date Country taining C. vulgaris was examined using the prototype Chlorella S Powder 11. 2017 Poland Gastroel-2014 apparatus, which was constructed at the Chlorella A Powder 07. 2018 China Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry at the Chlorella O Tablets 10. 2018 China Faculty of Pharmacy, Medical College, Jagiellonian Chlorella M Tablets 08. 2018 China University (Opoka et al. 2016). This apparatus was used to Chlorella B Tablets 03. 2018 China examine the release of compounds into the artificial digestive Chlorella C Tablets 01. 2019 Taiwan juices; it imitates gastrointestinal motions and provides a con- Chlorella C Tablets 09. 2017 Taiwan stant temperature of 37 °C. Mineralization of the preparations containing C. vulgaris was performed in the Magnum II microwave mineralizer HPLC grade methanol, acetic acid, dichloromethane, and ERTEC (Poland) for 1 h in three magnetron cycles: 15 min petroleum ether were from Merck (Germany). MgCl was at 60% power, 15 min at 80% power, and 30 min at 100% from Chempur (Poland); NaCl, KCl, and NaHCO were from power. Mineralization of solutions after digestion with artifi- PPH Golpharm (Poland); pepsin and bile salts were from BTL cial digestive juices using Gastroel-2014 was performed in the (Łódź,Poland);CaCl was from Pharma Zentrale GmbH UV R-8 mineral Polish mineralizer, which was performed by (Germany); pancreatic extract, HCl, KCl, concentrated UV irradiation of the mineralized test solution in a quartz HNO Suprapur, and KNO , Suprapur were from Merck reaction vessel in 5 cycles of 6–8 h each. 3 3 (Germany); C H O ,ZnSO ,KHCO ,Na HPO ,K HPO , Thermo Scientific AA Spectrometer iCE 3000 SERIES 6 8 7 4 3 2 4 2 4 and NaOH were from the Polish Company of Chemistry UK was used to measure metals in samples. (Gliwice, Poland). Water (quadruple-distilled) with a conduc- The analysis of phenolic compounds and lutein was per- −1 tivity of less than 1 μScm was obtained using an S2-97A2 formed using an HPLC VWR Hitachi-Merck apparatus with distillation apparatus (ChemLand, Poland). the following analytical conditions: autosampler L-2200, pump L-2130, LiChrospher RP-18e column (250 × 4 mm, 5 μm) thermostated at 25 °C, column oven L-2350, and diode Preparation of artificial digestive juices array detector L-2455 at the UV range of 200–400 nm. Artificial saliva Sample preparation Briefly, 100 mL of KH PO at a concentration of 2 4 −1 Analysis of metals in the preparations containing C. vulgaris 25 mmol L ,100mL of Na HPO at a concentration of 2 4 −1 24 mmol L , 100 mL of KHCO at a concentration of −1 The samples were mineralized to determine the content of 150 mmol L , 100 mL of MgCl at a concentration of −1 metals (Mg, Zn, and Fe) in the preparations containing 1.5 mmol L ,6mL of C H O at a concentration of 6 8 7 −1 C. vulgaris. Then, 0.2 g of the preparations was weighed with 25 mmol L , and 100 mL of CaCl at a concentration of −1 an accuracy of 0.1 mg and was transferred into a Teflon vessel 15 mmol L were subsequently added to a flask and then, to which 2 mL of perhydrol and 6 mL of concentrated nitric four-time-distilled water was added to bring the total volume acid were added. Mineralization was performed in a closed to 1000 mL (Arvidson and Johasson 1985). system (microwave mineralizer) until a clear, colorless solu- tion was obtained. The solutions after mineralization were Artificial gastric juice transferred to quartz evaporators and evaporated to Balmost dry^ on a heating plate at a temperature of approximately Briefly, 2.0 g of NaCl and 3.2 g of pepsin were dissolved in 200 °C to remove excess of reagents. Four-time-distilled water four-time-distilled water; then, 80 mL of HCl at a concentra- was added to the residue for a quantitative transfer to a volu- −1 tion of 1 mol L was added to bring the volume to 1 L (Polish metric flask, which was then filled with water to obtain a Pharmacopoeia 2014). volume of 10 mL. Artificial intestinal juice Analysis of metals and organic compounds in the extracts of preparations containing C. vulgaris Briefly, 20 mg of the pancreatic extract, 120 mg of a bile salt, and8.4gof NaHCO were dissolved in four-time-distilled Extracts of C. vulgaris preparations were obtained as a result water to obtain a total volume of 1 L (Neumann et al. 2006). of in vitro digestion using Gastroel-2014. The samples were 1632 J Appl Phycol (2018) 30:1629–1640 incubated with artificial gastric juice and in artificial intestinal the linear size of the area under the peak and the concen- juice for the same time intervals. tration of the reference standard. The results were Initially, 0.5 g of each sample was weighed and trans- expressed in milligram per 100 g of dry weight (d.w.). ferred to 100 mL Erlenmeyer flasks which was then wet- tedwithasolutionof artificial saliva(2mL, 1min). To this, 100 mL of gastric juice was added and the flasks RP-HPLC analysis of lutein were closed with a stopper and placed in the apparatus. The process of incubation continued for the next 30 and Lutein in artificial digestive juice extracts was separated 90 min. Then, the contents of the flasks were filtered and analyzed by using an RP18 column (4.6 × 250 mm, using a Büchner funnel and a vacuum set. The residue 5 μm) at 30 °C. The mobile phase consisted of solvent was transferred to the Erlenmeyer flasks together with A: methanol:water, 80:20 ( v/ v)and solventB: the filter and then 100 mL of intestinal juice was added. methanol:dichloromethane, 75:25 (v/v). The following gra- The digestion process lasted 30 and 90 min and then the dient procedure was used: starting at sample injection, 20% extracts were filtered again. Next, 5 mL of the obtained Bfor 5min, 20–60% B for 5 min, 60–100% B for 25 min, filtrates was collected for each of the determination of 100% B for 5 min, 100–20% B for 10 min, and 20% B for −1 metal content and organic compounds. A control sample 10 min. Theflowratewas 1.0mLmin (Yuan et al. 2008). was prepared in the same manner without adding the The comparison of UV spectra at λ = 450 nm and the re- preparation of C. vulgaris. The content of bioelements in tention times with the standard compound enabled the the analyzed, mineralized samples was examined by flame identification of the lutein present in the analyzed samples. atomic absorption spectrometry (F-AAS). Lutein and phe- nolic acids were analyzed by reversed phase high-pressure liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Analysis of tablet properties Analysis of Zn, Fe, and Mg content before and The tablets were evaluated as per the standard procedure de- after incubation with artificial digestive juices scribed in the European Pharmacopoeia 8th edition (2013.) for by using the F-AAS method uniformity of weight, hardness, friability, and disintegration time. Tablets were also tested for variation in thickness to Concentrations of Zn, Fe, and Mg were determined using the determine any variability associated with the tablet press or F-AAS method. Thermo Scientific AA Spectrometer iCE the method of preparation. 3000 series was used for all the measurements. Each sample Average weight of tablets was obtained according to was analyzed in quadruplicate, and the results are presented as pharmacopeia limits by weighing 20 randomly selected mean values. Satisfactory agreement between the determined tablets on an analytical balance (OHAUS Adventurer and the certified element concentration values was achieved. Pro). Hardness was determined for at least ten tablets by using the Erweka TBH 20 hardness tester (Erweka RP-HPLC analysis of phenolic compounds GmbH) and adopting a minimum hardness of 40 N as the acceptance criterion. For each formula, friability was The extracts obtained from the digestive juices were ana- evaluated from the percentage weight loss of 20 tablets lyzed for the contents of phenolic compounds by using tumbled in a Erweka TAR 120 friabilator (Erweka GmbH, the RP-HPLC method. These analyses were performed Hausenstamm, Germany) at 25 rpm for 4 min. The tablets according to the procedure developed by Sułkowska- were dedusted, and the loss in weight caused by fracture Ziaja et al. (2017). The analyses were performed at or abrasion was recorded as the percentage weight loss. 25 °C, with a mobile phase consisting of A—methanol, Friability of less than 1% was considered acceptable. The B—methanol:0.5% acetic acid, 1:4 (v/v). The gradient respective disintegration times of the prepared tablets was as follows: 100% B for 0–20 min; 100–80% B for were measured in 900 mL 20–35 min; 80–60% B for 35–55 min; 60–0% B for 55– of purified water with disks at 37 °C by using an ERWEKA 70 min; 0% B for 70–75 min; 0–100% B for 75–80 min; ZT 222 tester (Erweka GmbH). Six tablets were randomly −1 and 100% B for 80–90 min at a flow rate of 1 mL min , selected from each formulation and were put into a basket λ = 254 nm (phenolic acids and catechins) and λ = 370 nm rack. The disintegration time was recorded until all the frag- (flavonoids). Phenolic compounds were quantified by ments of the disintegrated tablet passed through the screen of measuring the peak area with reference to the standard the basket. For nonmodified tablets, the disintegration time curve derived from five concentrations (0.03– should be no longer than 15 min. Thickness of the tablet −1 0.50 mg mL ). A quantitative analysis of phenolic com- was determined for 20 tablets by using a digital vernier caliper pounds was performed using a calibration curve assuming (0–150 mm). J Appl Phycol (2018) 30:1629–1640 1633 Statistical analysis times greater than in the control samples (methanol extracts from C. vulgaris-containing preparations). Epigallocatechin Values are presented as mean ± standard deviation (SD). All was extracted in higher quantities from the intestinal juice experiments were performed four times. Statistical analysis after 90 min in case of powder (Chlorella A) and tablets −1 was performed using one-way ANOVA with the Tukey– (Chlorella B), 50.41 and 54.27 mg (100 g) d.w., respective- Kramer post hoc method of multiple comparisons. p <0.05 ly, which was approximately 2.5–56 times greater than in case −1 was accepted as the level of statistical significance. of control (20.09 and 8.42 mg (100 g) d.w., respectively). A Chemometric tools were used to facilitate the analysis and phenolic compound that was not released into the artificial interpretation of the data obtained in the experiment; these digestive juices, but is extracted in methanol, was epigallocat- −1 included the two main methods: cluster analysis (CA) and echin gallate (1.14–2.17 mg (100 g) d.w.). principal component analysis (PCA). CA enabled the identi- Lutein, the primary metabolite present in algae, was re- fication of groups of similar objects (preparation with leased into the artificial digestive juices only from the tablets −1 C. vulgaris) that were described by nine parameters (concen- ranging from 42.91 to 70.58 mg (100 g) d.w. tration of metals and organic compounds). PCA as a method F-AAS, which is one of the most common analytical tech- of calculation allowed the reduction of the data size and dem- niques used to analyzed bioelements, was used to determine onstration of the correlations between the objects in a two- the content of Zn, Fe, and Mg metals in preparations contain- dimensional space. Calculations were performed using ing C. vulgaris (powder and tablets) and in extracts obtained GraphPad InStat (USA) and Statgraphics Centurion XVII. incubation with digestive juices. The developed mineraliza- Statistical significance was established at p <0.05. tion conditions of lyophilized material and the applied analyt- ical method allowed an effective determination of elements in the preparations and extracts of artificial digestive juices. In Results this study, the preparations containing C. vulgaris were sub- jected to quantitative determination of Zn, Mg, and Fe The preparations of C. vulgaris were incubated with artificial (Table 3). According to the literature, C. vulgaris is rich in −1 digestive juices (Gastroel-2014 apparatus) to estimate the ac- macroelements such as phosphorus (1761.5 mg (100 g) of −1 tual quantities of bioelements, phenolic compounds, and lu- dry matter), potassium (749.9 mg (100 g) ), calcium −1 −1 tein available to humans. The incubation was performed under (593.7 mg (100 g) ), magnesium (344.3 mg (100 g) ), and −1 conditions imitating those in the human gastrointestinal tract microelements such as iron (259.1 mg (100 g) )(Tokusoglu (temperature of 37 °C and movements mimicking peristalsis 2003). According to these data, the intake of 3 g of the in the gastrointestinal tract). C. vulgaris extract fulfills the daily iron requirements for The following phenolic compounds were determined using men, whereas 7 g is needed for women (according to RDA the RP-HPLC method after incubation with artificial digestive standards, Institute of Medicine 2001)(Fig. 1a). According to juices from the preparations containing C. vulgaris: p- the results of our study, the amount of iron found after incu- hydroxybenzoic acid, p-coumaric acid, cinnamic acid, bation with artificial digestive juices is insufficient to supple- kaempferol 7-rhamnoside, epigallocatechin gallate, apigenin, ment the deficiency of this element in humans, as in case of and lutein from the xanthophyll group (Table 2). the release of zinc and magnesium from the preparations into The highest amounts of phenolic compounds released into the artificial digestive juices (Table 3). Thus, zinc content after the artificial digestive juices as compared to the control sam- digestion of samples for 30 min in artificial digestive juices ples (methanol extracts) were as follows: p-hydroxybenzoic (usually 9–15 tablets of these supplements are administered, acid, cinnamic acid, kaempferol 7-rhamnoside, and apigenin. corresponding to 4 g of extract per day) was found to be on an With respect to p-hydroxybenzoic acid, the largest amounts average only 0.804 μg, whereas the daily requirement of men for all preparations were extracted in the artificial intestinal and women is 11 mg (Fig. 1b). This implies that only 0.01% of juice after an extraction time of 30 min (0.86–2.74 mg the zinc requirement per day is supplied from the preparations −1 (100 g) d.w.). p-Coumaric acid was determined only in tab- containing C. vulgaris. Chlorella vulgaris contains chloro- lets, and its content was significantly lower (0.27–1.15 mg phyll, which constitutes 1–2% dry matter, and thus, it provides −1 (100 g) d.w.) than that of methanolic extracts (1.62– significant amounts of magnesium (Bashan et al. 2002). −1 4.48 mg (100 g) d.w.). Cinnamic acid (both in the artificial Magnesium content in control samples (mineralized formula- −1 digestive juices and in each time interval) was found in similar tions) was in the range of 1521–3221 μgg d.w. However, −1 contents, which ranged from 0.03 to 0.34 mg (100 g) d.w. after digestion with digestive juices, it was found to be much Lower levels of this metabolite was noted in methanolic ex- lower, and by using similar dosage assumptions as in case of −1 tracts (0.02–0.1 mg (100 g) d.w.). Apigenin and kaempferol zinc and magnesium, the average magnesium available was 7-rhamnoside were determined in significantly higher quanti- 306.57 μg(Fig. 1c). This quantity can only supplement 7.7% ties in any time variant; their concentrations were up to 15 of the daily requirement for men and 9.9% for women. In case 1634 J Appl Phycol (2018) 30:1629–1640 Table 2 Content of phenolic compounds and lutein in the extracts of preparations containing Chlorella vulgaris after digestion with artificial digestive juices Artificial juice Gastric juice Intestinal juice Methanolic extract Extract to artificial digestive juice 30 90 30 90 After incubation in artificial saliva After incubation in artificial intestinal juice −1 p-Hydroxybenzoic acid (mg (100 g) ) a a a a Chlorella S (powder) 1.18 ± 0.12 1.08 ± 0.08 1.66 ± 0.06 1.81 ± 0.98 0.37 ± 0.01 a,b a,b b b b Chlorella A (powder) 0.64 ± 0.06 0.55 ± 0.08 2.74 ± 0.68 2.15 ± 0.22 0.38 ± 0.00 b,c c b a,b,c Chlorella O (tablets) 1.05 ± 0.18 0.91 ± 0.30 1.56 ± 0.34 0.68 ± 0.03 0.87 ± 0.00 a,c b,d a,b,c,d Chlorella M (tablets) 0.50 ± 0.02 1.25 ± 0.19 1.35 ± 0.09 1.13 ± 0.55 0.57 ± 0.03 a,c a,d c.d Chlorella B (tablets) 0.51 ± 0.05 0.56 ± 0.05 2.15 ± 0.29 0.84 ± 0.14 0.34 ± 0.00 a,c a,c,d b a c,d Chlorella C (tablets) 0.39 ± 0.05 0.42 ± 0.03 0.86 ± 0.26 0.40 ± 0.03 0.31 ± 0.07 −1 p-Coumaric acid (mg (100 g) ) Chlorella S (powder) nd nd nd nd 2.53 ± 0.11 a,b Chlorella A (powder) nd nd nd nd 1.87 ± 0.08 c c a,b,c Chlorella O (tablets) nd nd 0.42 ± 0.20 0.31 ± 0.15 4.48 ± 0.17 d c a,b,c,d Chlorella M (tablets) nd nd 0.27 ± 0.10 1.15 ± 0.02 2.19 ± 0.02 e b,c,e Chlorella B (tablets) nd nd 0.28 ± 0.05 nd 2.31 ± 0.03 c,d,e a,c,d,e Chlorella C (tablets) nd nd nd nd 1.62 ± 0.07 −1 Cinnamic acid (mg (100 g) ) a a a a a Chlorella S (powder) 0.27 ± 0.03 0.34 ± 0.05 0.24 ± 0.01 0.14 ± 0.02 0.02 ± 0.01 a,b a a,b b a,b Chlorella A (powder) 0.12 ± 0.01 0.15 ± 0.02 0.18 ± 0.02 0.17 ± 0.03 0.08 ± 0.00 a,b,c c a,c a,b,c a,b,c Chlorella O (tablets) 0.08 ± 0.001 0.10 ± 0.09 0.19 ± 0.02 0.08 ± 0.001 0.10 ± 0.00 a,d a a,b,c a,b,d a,b.c,d Chlorella M (tablets) 0.09 ± 0.002 0.11 ± 0.09 0.06 ± 0.001 0.05 ± 0.007 0.07 ± 0.00 a,b a a,b,c a,b,c,d a,b,c,e Chlorella B (tablets) 0.06 ± 0.001 0.05 ± 0.004 0.03 ± 0.005 0.05 ± 0.00 0.07 ± 0.00 a,b,c,d a a,b,c a,b a,b,c,d,e Chlorella C (tablets) 0.03 ± 0.005 0.04 ± 0.001 0.06 ± 0.003 0.04 ± 0.001 0.09 ± 0.00 −1 Kaempferol 7-rhamnoside (mg (100 g) ) a a a a Chlorella S (powder) 8.03 ± 0.71 10.88 ± 0.53 9.01 ± 1.96 6.44 ± 1.13 1.25 ± 0.01 a b a,b a,b Chlorella A (powder) 6.35 ± 1.00 6.41 ± 1.40 11.78 ± 1.70 13.45 ± 3.05 1.17 ± 0.00 a b b a,b,c Chlorella O (tablets) 5.92 ± 0.85 6.65 ± 0.44 7.53 ± 1.14 5.64 ± 0.76 4.32 ± 0.02 a a b b a,b,c,d Chlorella M (tablets) 5.63 ± 0.95 6.85 ± 1.30 5.87 ± 0.77 5.13 ± 0.37 2.77 ± 0.00 a a b b a,b,c,d,e Chlorella B (tablets) 5.23 ± 0.56 5.21 ± 0.63 7.19 ± 0.48 6.25 ± 0.51 1.31 ± 0.00 a a b b a,b,c,d,e Chlorella C (tablets) 4.47 ± 0.47 5.16 ± 0.33 5.80±0.71 4.30 ± 0.31 1.35 ± 0.01 −1 Epigallocatechin (mg (100 g) ) a a a a Chlorella S (powder) 15.75 ± 1.15 12.47 ± 3.16 25.59 ± 5.23 5.18 ± 0.57 20.90 ± 0.66 b b a a,b b Chlorella A (powder) 15.80 ± 0.84 13.52 ± 1.70 19.35 ± 1.60 50.41 ± 5.6.0 20.09 ± 0.14 a,b c c a,b,c a,b,c Chlorella O (tablets) 8.65 ± 0.52 12.60 ± 1.10 18.63 ± 3.13 31.60 ± 5.98 13.41 ± 1.27 a,b a,d b,c,d a,b,c,d Chlorella M (tablets) 9.34 ± 0.83 11.91 ± 3.28 11.59 ± 3.08 7.81 ± 2.87 6.37 ± 0.54 a,b a,b,c d,e a,c,de a,b,c,e Chlorella B (tablets) 8.56 ± 1.00 5.92 ± 1.51 20.22 ± 1.56 54.27 ± 5.38 8.42 ± 0.16 a,b a,b,c,e a,b,d,e Chlorella C (tablets) 10.17 ± 2.30 10.13 ± 0.64 6.26 ± 1.15 nd 14.04 ± 2.33 −1 Epigallocatechin gallate (mg (100 g) ) Chlorella S (powder) nd nd nd nd 1.14 ± 0.23 a,b Chlorella A (powder) nd nd nd nd 2.17 ± 0.02 a,b,c Chlorella O (tablets) nd nd nd nd 1.63 ± 0.00 b,c Chlorella M (tablets) nd nd nd nd 1.36 ± 0.01 a,b Chlorella B (tablets) nd nd nd nd 1.42 ± 0.01 Chlorella C (tablets) nd nd nd nd nd −1 Apigenin (mg (100 g) ) a a a a a Chlorella S (powder) 16.84 ± 1.89 23.40 ± 1.36 23.26 ± 4.91 16.93 ± 2.46 2.95 ± 0.05 a a,b a,b Chlorella A (powder) 15.81 ± 0.17 18.11 ± 3.12 18.50 ± 0.73 21.91 ± 2.70 3.30 ± 0.01 J Appl Phycol (2018) 30:1629–1640 1635 Table 2 (continued) Artificial juice Gastric juice Intestinal juice Methanolic extract Extract to artificial digestive juice 30 90 30 90 After incubation in artificial saliva After incubation in artificial intestinal juice a b b,c Chlorella O (tablets) 16.52 ± 0.48 16.10 ± 0.05 20.00 ± 1.21 14.71 ± 0.04 2.97 ± 0.21 a b a,b,c,d Chlorella M (tablets) 14.81 ± 0.01 18.94 ± 2.46 16.83 ± 0.05 14.73 ± 0.01 nd a b d Chlorella B (tablets) 16.02 ± 1.46 16.08 ± 1.14 19.81 ± 0.10 16.31 ± 0.68 3.22 ± 0.00 a a b a,c,d Chlorella C (tablets) 13.66 ± 1.13 15.58 ± 0.16 18.93 ± 0.26 13.04 ± 1.14 3.33 ± 0.20 −1 Lutein (mg (100 g) ) Chlorella S (powder) nd nd nd nd 867.80 ± 90.41 a,b Chlorella A (powder) nd nd nd nd 723.47 ± 60.82 c c a,b.c Chlorella O (tablets) nd nd 70.58 ± 5.23 50.45 ± 0.04 497.17 ± 39.11 c d a,b,d Chlorella M (tablets) nd 58.33 ± 0.01 58.36 ± 0.04 50.93 ± 0.31 468.05 ± 0.71 a,b,c,d,e Chlorella B (tablets) nd nd 67.85 ± 0.10 nd 73.12 ± 7.71 c c,d a,b,e Chlorella C (tablets) nd nd 57.24 ± 8.19 42.91 ± 3.31 527.56 ± 53.31 n = 3 in triplicate; the Tukey–Kramer test was used to reveal the differences between paired groups of elements in rows; the same superscript letters (a, b, c, d, and e) are marked for which the content differences are statistically significant (for p values < 0.05) nd not detected of iron, 8.74 μg was found in the sample after digestion with Discussion artificial digestive juices, which supplements 10.9% of the daily requirement for men and 4.8% for women. The primary phenolic compounds determined in preparations Tablets containing C. vulgaris disintegrated in the artificial containing C. vulgaris are both benzoic and cinnamic acid digestive juices only after approximately 30 min. Therefore, derivatives. According to the literature, C. vulgaris contains the physical properties of tablets containing C. vulgaris were phenolic compounds such as salicylic acid, trans-cinnamic ensured to be according to the European Pharmacopoeia 8th acid, chlorogenic acid, and caffeic acid (Miranda et al. edition ( 2013). Table 4 lists the physical properties of the 2001). In this study, we detected the presence of the following prepared tablets in terms of the uniformity of weight, hard- phenolic compounds in preparations containing C. vulgaris: ness, friability, and disintegration time. The tablets were also p-hydroxybenzoic acid, p-coumaric acid, and cinnamic acid. tested for variation in thickness to determine any variability In addition, the samples contained kaempferol 7-rhamnoside, associated with the tablet press or the method of preparation. epigallocatechin gallate, and apigenin. According to the The thickness of the tablets ranged from 4.3 ± 0.05 to literature, these compounds are bioavailable for humans. 5.78 ± 0.28 mm. In case of Chlorella B (tablets), the per- Chlorella extracts rich in phenolic compounds exhibit centage deviation of thickness exceeded 5% (acceptable strong antioxidant activity. Peng et al. (2009) performed range of thickness: ± 5%). The average weight, hardness, in vivo experiments using rats to test the antioxidant activity and friability were within the pharmacopeia specifica- of Chlorella extracts. The animals were fed on diet enriched tions. Variation in weight ranged from 196.95 ± 2.31 to with tetrachloromethane, an organic chemical compound in 401.95 ± 15.72 mg (acceptable range of weight variation: which all hydrogen atoms are replaced by strong, electroneg- ± 7.5% for tablets weighing up to 249 mg and ± 5% for ative chlorine atoms exhibiting strong hepatotoxicity leading tablets weighing more than 250 mg). Hardness of tablets to jaundice and in severe cases to cirrhosis. ranged from 62.8 ± 8.3 to 109.2 ± 16.94 N (acceptable Tetrachloromethane in the liver cells is metabolized to the range of hardness: > 40 N), and friability ranged from trichloromethyl radical, which reacts with oxygen to form a 0.03 to 0.152% (acceptable range of friability: < 1%) more reactive radical –� CCl O � . According to their results, 3 2 (European Pharmacopoeia 8th edition, 2013). phenolic compounds found in Chlorella extracts prevented Disintegration times of the investigated tablets exceeded the damage caused by the free radical attack and the peroxi- 15 min. All tablet formulations had excessively long dis- dation of liver cell membranes, indicating the hepatoprotec- integration times, which ranged from 36.67 to tive activity of Chlorella extracts (Peng et al. 2009). 125.67 min. The average disintegration time of the inves- Lutein is a yellow organic carotenoid pigment. Its content −1 tigatedtablets wasupto61.17min. in C. vulgaris ranged from 5 to 383 mg (100 g) dry matter 1636 J Appl Phycol (2018) 30:1629–1640 Table 3 Content of bioelements determined using the F-AAS method in preparations containing Chlorella vulgaris after extraction to artificial digestive juices −1 Zn (μgg of preparation) Digestive juice Gastric juice Intestinal juice Control Incubation time (min) 30 90 After 30 min in gastric juice After 90 min in gastric juice Amount of Zn Chlorella S (powder) a a a a a released 0.58 ± 0.03 0.81 ± 0.02 0.13 ± 0.003 0.11 ± 0.002 8.25 ± 0.12 Chlorella A (powder) a,b a,b a,b a,b a,b 1.43 ± 0.002 1.99 ± 0.013 0.03 ± 0.001 0.05 ± 0.002 28.94 ± 0.1 Chlorella O (tablets) a,b,c a,b,c a,c a,b,c a,b,c 0.36 ± 0.002 0.77 ± 0.008 0.05 ± 0.001 0.06 ± 0.001 12.3 ± 0.1 Chlorella M (tablets) a,b,c,d a,b,c,d a,b,c,d a,b,c,d a,b,c,d 0.074 ± 0.001 0.48 ± 0.002 0.80 ± 0.004 0.67 ± 0.003 9.4 ± 0.2 Chlorella B (tablets) a,b,c,d,e a,b,c,d,e b,c,d,e a,b,c,d, a,b,c, 0.822 ± 0.003 1.15 ± 0.002 0.13 ± 0.001 0.09 ± 0.001 48.1 ± 1.2 Chlorella C (tablets) a,b,d,e a,b,c,d,e a,d,e a,b,c,d, a,b,c, 0.367 ± 0.005 0.42 ± 0.004 0.01 ± 0.001 0.09 ± 0.002 21.5 ± 0.3 −1 Fe (μgg of preparation) Amount of Fe released Chlorella S (powder) a a a a a 1.12 ± 0.02 1.11 ± 0.02 1.25 ± 0.03 1.03 ± 0.03 1210.1 ± 2.20 Chlorella A (powder) a,b a,b a,b a,b a,b 6.58 ± 0.01 7.54 ± 0.04 1.14 ± 0.02 1.23 ± 0.01 1520.2 ± 4.5 Chlorella O (tablets) a,b,c a,b,c a,b,c a,b,c a,b,c 2.44 ± 0.08 9.96 ± 0.03 3.60 ± 0.01 3.15 ± 0.07 2112.0 ± 2.0 Chlorella M (tablets) a,b,c,d a,b,c,d a,b,c,d a,b,c,d a,b,c,d 7.24 ± 0.05 9.81 ± 0.52 3.48 ± 0.05 2.79 ± 0.01 1960.2 ± 5.0 Chlorella B (tablets) a,b,c,d,e a,b,c,d,e a,b,c,d,e a,b,c,d,e a,b,c,d,e 1.54 ± 0.02 5.12 ± 0.02 2.42 ± 0.02 3.90 ± 0.04 1089.0 ± 7.5 Chlorella C (tablets) a,b,c,d,e a,b,c,d,e b,c,d,e a,b,c,d,e a,b,c,d,e 1.33 ± 0.02 2.82 ± 0.03 1.22 ± 0.02 1.35 ± 0.02 879.6 ± 6.2 −1 Mg (μgg of preparation) Amount of Mg released Chlorella S (powder) a a a a a 153.55 ± 1.66 233.13 ± 4.60 35.15 ± 2.63 33.70 ± 1.20 3221.5 ± 2.5 Chlorella A (powder) a,b a,b a,b a,b a,b 239.82 ± 1.16 188.18 ± 1.30 77.30 ± 1.85 105.92 ± 0.57 1521.5 ± 4.0 Chlorella O (tablets) a,b,c a,b,c a,b,c a,b,c a,b,c 93.80 ± 0.65 262.68 ± 2.95 87.91 ± 3.08 115.28 ± 1.70 2626.0 ± 5.3 Chlorella M (tablets) a,b,c,d a,b,c,d a,b,c,d a,c,d a,b,c,d 117.31 ± 1.95 117.34 ± 1.70 133.43 ± 1.30 108.15 ± 3.10 1942.0 ± 3.1 Chlorella B (tablets) a,b,c,d,e a,b,c,d,e a,b,c,d,e a,b,c,d,e a,b,c,d,e 58.47 ± 0.85 125.74 ± 1.65 92.16 ± 1.15 92.84 ± 0.85 2665.0 ± 6.0 Chlorella C (tablets) a,b,c,d,e a,b,c,d,e b,c,d,e a,b,c,d,e a,b,c,d,e 50.77 ± 0.70 68.91 ± 0.65 33.91 ± 1.10 24.05 ± 1.30 3062.5 ± 2.1 n = 3 in triplicate; the Tukey–Kramer test was used for revealing the differences between paired groups of elements in rows; the same superscript letters (a, b, c, d, and e) are marked for which the content differences are statistically significant (for p values of < 0.05) (Gonzalez and Bashan 2000; Kitada et al. 2009; Safi et al. of the retina with a distinctive yellow color due to the presence 2014). In humans, the highest concentration of lutein is found of lutein and zeaxanthin. Lutein exhibits a strong antioxidant in the yellow spot, which is a 7–8-mm round area on the inside effect on the free radicals of the reactive oxygen species J Appl Phycol (2018) 30:1629–1640 1637 −1 −1 −1 Fig. 1 Radar chart showing the amount of extracted a Fe [μgg ], b Zn [μgg ], and c Mg [μgg ] for artificial gastric juice and artificial intestinal juice, depending on the incubation time (ROS) class, which are generated by oxidative phosphoryla- over a relatively wide range, does not give a clear indication of tion in the mitochondria on the outer stamen segment. the observations of systematic changes. In this case, the use of Furthermore, the increased production of ROS may be due chemometric tools should be useful. Chemometric tools allow to hypoxia of the photosensitive retinal cells (Koushan et al. an analysis of data and their interpretation in an easy and 2013). accessible manner. The task of chemometry is to Bextract^ The amount of lutein, although less than in the control meaningful information about relationships between mea- samples, were sufficient to supplement approximately 40– sured variables or objects. This is possible after applying ap- 60% of the daily requirement for humans (the daily require- propriate mathematical analytical methods to eliminate the −1 ment ranges from 10 to 20 mg day )(Otten et al. 2006). anomalies associated with the measurements (Johnson 1984; According to the results provided in Tables 2 and 3,six Sharaf et al. 1986; Miller and Miller 1999). objects (preparations containing C. vulgaris)werefound to CA was used for the first set of analytical dataset. This be characterized by 11 features (variable with different con- method makes it possible to indicate a similarity (presented centrations of Mg, Zn, and Fe, and the content of the organic on dendrogram commonly called Btree^ (Fig. 2)), or a distinct compounds). Large number of variables, whose values change absence, between the subject matter being investigated Table 4 Evaluation of physical Formulations Weight variation Thickness Friability Breaking force Disintegration time properties of tablets (mean ± SD) (mg) (mm) (%) (N) (min) with Chlorella vulgaris Chlorella O 401.95 ± 15.72 5.78 ± 0.28 0.08 62.8 ± 8.3 42.16 ± 7.02 (tablets) Chlorella M 196.95 ± 2.31 4.17 ± 0.04 0.152 63.1 ± 5.93 36.67 ± 5.88 (tablets) Chlorella B 243.1 ± 3.32 4.3 ± 0.05 0.103 94.1 ± 7.13 40.17 ± 6.11 (tablets) Chlorella C 258.6 ± 6.35 5.06 ± 0.09 0.03 109.2 ± 16.94 125.67 ± 10.97 (tablets) 1638 J Appl Phycol (2018) 30:1629–1640 Fig. 2 Cluster analysis of the preparation with Chlorella vulgaris (the Euclidean distance square and Ward’s algorithm) (preparations containing C. vulgaris) or variables (analyzed Chlorella M formulations as evidenced by the shortest length elements and organic compounds) (Aldenderfer and of the dendrogram tree arms. The shorter the branch lengths Blashfield 1985; Everitt et al. 2001; Massart and Vander are, the greater is the similarity between the objects in question 2004;Gemperline 2006). (Johnson 1984). Based on our similarity analysis (CA, Fig. 2), we observed PCA has been used as the complementary method in this a subgroup of parameters with similar variability. These pa- study. PCA is considered a computational method that leads to rameters describe the concentrations of the individual vari- the limitation of the measurement data space to the amount ables. In practice, this implies that the course of change in required to describe the interactions between them. these variables is similar, which proves at the same time, a Parameters, mutually dependent, are replaced with new vari- high correlation between the objects. Thus, two primary aims ables, the so-called main components, which exclude the loss were distinguished. Within the first cluster, there are four for- of relevant information. Using PCA, we found that 75.4% of mulas: Chlorella S, Chlorella A, Chlorella B, and Chlorella C, the variations occurring within the analyzed dataset could be and the second cluster has two formulas: Chlorella O and described with the first three major components (PC1, PC2, Chlorella M. Their classification into individual clusters indi- and PC3). Bringing a multidimensional data system to the cates the similarity of their composition (content of organic three main components allowed us to conduct the analysis constituents and metals). Furthermore, we found that the on a flat projection of the three-dimensional space highest correlation occurred between Chlorella O and (Malinowski 1991;Henrion 1994; Massart and Vander Fig. 3 Biplot graph creates a three-dimensional space presented on the plane, showing the correlation between the analyzed ingredients found in the formulations containing Chlorella vulgaris and the site of the human gastric juice. Stomach juice (j. stomach) and intestinal juice (j. intestinal) J Appl Phycol (2018) 30:1629–1640 1639 2004). Considering the similarity of the objects with respect to References their place in the digestive system, which resulted in the re- lease of metals and organic compounds from the formulations Aldenderfer MS, Blashfield RK (1985) Cluster analysis. Sage Publications, Los Angeles containing C. vulgaris (Fig. 3), two distinct groups were iden- Aremu AO, Masondo NA, Molnár Z, Stirk WA, Ördög V, Van Staden J tified. The first group consisted of ingredients analyzed in the (2016) Changes in phytochemical content and pharmacological ac- gastric juice, while the other group contained those analyzed tivities of three Chlorella strains grown in different nitrogen condi- in the intestinal juice. Such a division indicated the correlation tions. J Appl Phycol 28:149–159 Arvidson K, Johasson EG (1985) Galvanic current between dental alloys between a given ingredient and the site of its release in the in vitro. Scad J Dent Res 93:467–472 body. Furthermore, taking into account the two-dimensional Baaij J (2015) Magnesium in man: implications for health and disease. graph (Fig. 3) obtained from the three main components, we Physiol Rev 95:1–46 made certain changes to the individual variables in the area of Bashan LE, Bashan Y, Moreno M, Lebsky VK, Bustillos JJ (2002) the digestive tract to which the formulation components were Increased pigment and lipid content, lipid variety, and cell and pop- ulation size of the microalgae Chlorella spp. when co-immobilized released. Thus, we found that from each of the investigated in alginate beads with the microalgae-growth-promoting bacterium preparations, both metals and organic compounds were re- Azospirillum brasilense. Can J Microbiol 48:514–521 leased into artificial digestive juices; moreover, the release Council of Europe (2013) European Pharmacopoeia 8th ed. Council of was targeted at a particular place in the digestive tract and Europe, Strasbourg depended on the component being analyzed. The organic Everitt BS, Landau S, Leese M (2001) Cluster analysis. Arnold Publishers, London compounds from the formulations were most released into Gemperline P (2006) Practical guide to chemometrics. Taylor & Francis, the intestinal juices. Absorption in the human body is most London likely in the intestine. Thus, we conclude that these prepara- Gonzalez LE, Bashan Y (2000) Increased growth of the microalga tions provide organic compounds to the body. In contrast, the Chlorella vulgaris when coimmobilized and co cultured in alginate beads with the plant—growth-promoting bacterium Azospirillum release of metals was in the greatest degree into the gastric brasilense. Appl Environ Microbiol 66:1527–1531 juices; this suggests that they are only slightly absorbed by the Görs M, Schumann Hepperle D, Karsten U (2010) Quality analysis of human body. commercial Chlorella products used as dietary supplement in hu- man nutrition. J Appl Phycol 22:265–276 Hasegawa T, Ito K, Ueno S, Kumamoto S, Ando Y, Yamada A, Yasunobu Y (1999) Oral administration of hot water extracts of Chlorella vulgaris reduces IgE production against milk casein in mice. Int J Conclusions Immunopharmacol 21:311–323 Henrion R (1994) N-way principal component analysis theory, algo- In this study, the usefulness of preparations containing rithms and applications. Chemometr Intell Lab 25:1–23 Institute of Medicine (2001) Dietary reference intakes for vitamin A, C. vulgaris in the supplementation of daily diets with the vitamin K, arsenic, boron, chromium, copper, iodine, iron, manga- examined compounds for humans has been evaluated on the nese, molybdenum, nickel, silicon, vanadium, and zinc. The basis of the analysis of the extracts incubated with artificial National Academies Press, Washington. DC digestive juices, and the concentration of phenolic compounds Johnson R (1984) Elementary statistics 4th edition. PWN Publishers, and lutein in the digestive juices. The qualitative composition USA Justo GZ, Silva MR, Queiroz M (2001) Effects of the green algae of bioelements was consistent with the manufacturer’sdecla- Chlorella vulgaris on the response of the host hematopoietic system rations on the packaging containing C. vulgaris,withrespect to intraperitoneal ehrlich ascites tumor transplantation in mice. to the controls, but the examined elements were found to be Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol 23:119–132 negligible in the artificial digestive juices. Therefore, these Kitada K, Machmudah S, Sasaki M, Goto M, Nakashima Y, Kumamoto S (2009) Supercritical CO extraction of pigment components with preparations cannot be considered to be a good source of 2 pharmaceutical importance from Chlorella vulgaris.JChem elements such as iron, magnesium, or zinc. An important ele- Technol Biotechnol 84:657–661 ment in the study of an effect of dietary supplements on Koushan K, Rusovici R, Li W, Ferguson L, Chalam K (2013) The role of humans is also primarily the way of preparing the form of lutein in eye-related disease. Nutrients 5:1823–1839 the preparation such that the active substances are released Kwak JH, Baek SH, Woo Y, Han JK, Kim BG, Kim OY, Lee JH (2012) Beneficial immunostimulatory effect of short-term Chlorella sup- from it in the most effective manner. plementation: enhancement of natural killer cell activity and early inflammatory response (randomized, double-blinded, placebo- controlled trial). Nut J 11(53). https://doi.org/10.1186/1475-2891- Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative 11-53 Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http:// Livingstone C (2015) Zinc: physiology, deficiency, and parenteral nutri- creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, tion. Nutr Clin Pract 30:371–382 distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appro- Malinowski ER (1991) Factor analysis in chemistry. John Wiley & Sons, priate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the New York Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. Massart DL, Vander HY (2004) From tables to visuals: principal compo- nent analysis. LC-GC Europe 18:84–89 1640 J Appl Phycol (2018) 30:1629–1640 Miller JN, Miller JC (1999) Statistics and chemometrics for analytical Sharaf MA, Illman L, Kowalski BRC (1986) Hemometrics. John Wiley &Sons, USA chemistry. Prentice Hall, London Miranda MS, Sato S, Mancini-Filho J (2001) Antioxidant activity of the Suetsuna K, Chen JR (2001) Identification of antihypertensive peptides microalga Chlorella vulgaris cultered on special conditions. Boll from peptic digest of two microalgae, Chlorella vulgaris and Chim Farm 140:165–168 Spirulina platensis. Mar Biotech 3:305–309 Muszyńska B, Łojewski M, Sułkowska-Ziaja K, Szewczyk A, Gdula- Sułkowska-Ziaja K, Maślanka A, Szewczyk A, Muszyńska B (2017) Argasińska J, Hałaszuk P (2016) In vitro cultures of Bacopa Physiologically active compounds in four species of Phellinus. monnieri (L. Pennell) and an analysis of selected groups of biolog- NPC 12:363–366 ically active metabolites in their biomass. Pharm Biol 4:1–11 Terés S, Barceló-Coblijn G, Benet M, Álvares R, Bressani R, Halver JE, Neumann M, Goderska K, Grajek K, Grajek W (2006) Modele przewodu Escriba PV (2008) Oleic acid content is responsible for the reduction pokarmowego in vitro do badań nad biodostępnością składników in blood pressure induced by olive oil. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 105: odżywczych. Żywność Technologia Nauka Jakość 1:30–45 (in Polish) 13811–13816 Opoka W, Muszyńska B, Rojowski J, Rumian J (2016) Gastroel-2014. Terpinc P, Abramovic H (2010) A kinetic approach for evaluation of the Poland Patent Application P 417238 antioxidant activity of selected phenolic acids. Food Chem 121: Otten JJ, Hellwig JP, Meyers LD (2006) Dietary reference intakes. 366–371 National Academies Press, Washington, D.C. Tokusoglu U (2003) Biomass nutrient profiles of three microalgae: Peng HY, Chu YC, Chen SJ, Chou ST (2009) Hepatoprotection of Spirulina platensis, Chlorella vulgaris and Isochrysis galbana.J Chlorella against carbon tetrachloride-induced oxidative damage Food Sci 68:1144–1148 in rats. In Vivo 23: 747–754 Yuan JP, Kuang HC, Wang JH, Liu X (2008) Evaluation of ergosterol and Polish Pharmacopoeia (2014) Ed. X, PTFarm, Warszawa its esters in the pileus, gill, and stipe tissues of agaric fungi and their Přibyl P, Cepák V, Zachleder V (2013) Production of lipids and formation relative changes in the comminuted fungal tissues. Appl Microbiol and mobilization of lipid bodies in Chlorella vulgaris. J Appl Phycol Biot 80:459–465 25:545–553 Yusof YA, Saad SM, Makpol S, Shamaan NA, Ngah WW (2010) Hot Safi C, Zebib B, Merah O, Pontalier PY, Vaca-Garcia C (2014) water extract of Chlorella vulgaris induced DNA damage and apo- Morphology, composition, production, processing and applications ptosis. Clinics 65:1371–1377 of Chlorella vulgaris: a review. Renew Sust Energ Rev 35:265–278 Shi X-M, Chen F, Yuan J-P, Chen H (1997) Heterotrophic production of Seyfabadi J, Ramezanpour Z, Amini Khoeyi Z (2011) Protein, fatty acid, lutein by selected Chlorella strains. J Appl Phycol 9:445–450 and pigment content of Chlorella vulgaris under different light re- gimes. J Appl Phycol 23:721–726 http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Journal of Applied Phycology Springer Journals

Bioaccessibility of phenolic compounds, lutein, and bioelements of preparations containing Chlorella vulgaris in artificial digestive juices

Free
12 pages

Loading next page...
 
/lp/springer_journal/bioaccessibility-of-phenolic-compounds-lutein-and-bioelements-of-fnV78dg9R1
Publisher
Springer Journals
Copyright
Copyright © 2017 by The Author(s)
Subject
Life Sciences; Plant Sciences; Freshwater & Marine Ecology; Plant Physiology; Ecology
ISSN
0921-8971
eISSN
1573-5176
D.O.I.
10.1007/s10811-017-1357-2
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Chlorella vulgaris Beijerinck is a spherical, green alga belonging to the genus Chlorella and family Chlorellaceae. It has high nutritional value and shows multiple biological effects. Dietary supplements that contain extracts of C. vulgaris are sold in the form of tablets, capsules, powders, and aqueous solutions. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to determine the content of bioelements (zinc, iron, and magnesium), phenolic compounds, and lutein before and after incubation with artificial digestive juices from preparations containing C. vulgaris. In this study, we used commercial preparations in the form of powder and tablets. The samples were incubated in artificial gastric juice and then in artificial intestinal juice for 30 and 90 min. The contents of bioelements were determined by using the flame atomic absorption spectrometric method. Lutein and phenolic compounds were analyzed by high-pressure liquid chromatography. We also aimed to evaluate the quality of chlorella- containing formulations by using the methods described in the European Pharmacopoeia 8th edition. According to the results, the preparations containing C. vulgaris demonstrated the presence of phenolic compounds and lutein. Therefore, daily supple- mentation of preparations containing C. vulgaris substantiates its usefulness for humans. The qualitative composition of the examined organic substances and bioelements was found to be in accordance with the manufacturer’s declarations on the packaging containing C. vulgaris compared with the control samples; however, the contents of bioelements were found to be negligible after incubation with artificial digestive juices. This shows that the examined preparations containing C. vulgaris are not good sources of bioelements such as zinc, iron, or magnesium. . . . . Keywords Chlorella vulgaris Dietary supplements Lutein Phenolic compounds Artificial digestive juice Introduction time for people to follow the rules of a well-balanced diet. Therefore, there is considerable interest among people to bal- A sharp increase in the sales of nutritional supplements for ance their nutritional status with pharmacological sources of particular uses and also an increase in over-the-counter (OTC) essential bioelements (e.g., zinc, iron, and magnesium) and medicines have been observed in recent years. This can be biologically active substances taken in the form of readily avail- attributed to the fast pace of life, and most of all, to the lack of able and assimilable preparations (e.g., tablets, powders, and syrups) distributed primarily through pharmacies. It is important to check and analyze not only the market of dietary supplements * Bożena Muszyńska and the honesty of promises presented by the manufacturers in muchon@poczta.fm their advertisements but also the content of active ingredients in these preparations. Some of the OTC formulas, dietary supple- Department of Pharmaceutical Botany, Faculty of Pharmacy, ments, and functional foods fulfilling the demand for most of the Jagiellonian University Medical College, Medyczna 9 St., nutrients affect health contain algae. Preparations containing 30-688 Kraków, Poland algae are available as ready-made preparations: powders— Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of lyophilizates, tablets, pills, and capsules and are commonly used Pharmacy, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Medyczna 9 St., 30-688 Kraków, Poland in the production of cosmetics (Görs et al. 2010). Chlorella vulgaris Beijerinck is a spherical, single-celled Chair and Department of Applied Pharmacy, Medical University of Lublin, Chodźki 1, 20-093 Lublin, Poland freshwater alga from the Chlorellaceae. It contains numerous 1630 J Appl Phycol (2018) 30:1629–1640 bioactive organic and inorganic substances that exhibit health produced primarily in higher plants and algae. Lutein is an promoting properties; for example, it is has antihypertensive, important compound with antioxidant activity found in anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anticancer, and C. vulgaris and is essential for humans (Koushan et al. immunostimulatory properties as well as it also improves 2013). Lutein is the intracellular product of C. vulgaris,and brain function (Suetsuna and Chen 2001; Tokusoglu 2003; thus lutein-rich Chlorella may be developed as a high-value Terés et al. 2008; Seyfabadi et al. 2011;Přibyl et al. 2013). health food (Shi et al. 1997). Kwak et al. (2012) performed experiment on a group of 40 In this study, we aimed to determine the content of healthy volunteers and demonstrated the immunomodulatory bioelements because of their physiological role (in human effects of a C. vulgaris extract. According to their results, there metabolism by building blocks and being enzymes activators). was an increase in the cytotoxic activity of natural killer cells Zinc is responsible for growth and proper functioning of the and an increase in the concentration of interferon-γ and immune system (Livingstone 2015). Iron is an essential ele- interleukin-1β after 8-week administration of C. vulgaris ex- ment in cellular aerobic respiration. Magnesium is the second tract in the form of tablets. Oral administration of aqueous most abundant intracellular cation and is an essential element extract of C. vulgaris in mice decreased the production of responsible for maintenance of life. It is involved in various IgE-antibodies and simultaneously increased the mRNA ex- cellular functions and enzymatic reactions (Baaij 2015). pression of T helper cell cytokines, including interferon-γ and Because of their high nutritional value and multiple beneficia- interleukin-12 (Hasegawa et al. 1999). The mechanism of an- ry effects, dietary supplements containing C. vulgaris extracts ticancer activity of C. vulgaris extracts also involves the stim- are available in the market in the form of tablets, capsules, ulation of production and maturation of granulocytes and powders, and aqueous solutions. Numerous studies have de- macrophages (Justo et al. 2001). scribed the content of biologically active substances in dietary Compounds that are responsible for the aforementioned supplements of C. vulgaris (Seyfabadi et al. 2011;Koushan biological activities are among others phenolic compounds, et al. 2013;Přibyl et al. 2013). However, to the best of our xanthophylls such as lutein, and bioelements such as zinc, knowledge, this is the first study to determine the content of iron, and magnesium. These substances are also specified by bioelements (zinc, iron, and magnesium), phenolic com- the manufacturers of C. vulgaris dietary supplements. pounds, and lutein in preparations containing C. vulgaris after Phenolic compounds exhibit a wide spectrum of biological incubation with artificial digestive juices (under conditions activities that are attributed to their strong antioxidant activity that stimulate the human gastrointestinal tract) which demon- and have the ability to protect important cellular structures strate their bioavailability. The secondary aim was to evaluate such as cell membranes, structural proteins, enzymes, mem- the quality of chlorella-containing formulations by using the brane lipids, or nucleic acids against oxidative damage methods described in the European Pharmacopoeia 8th edi- tion ( 2013). (Terpinc and Abramovic 2010). Phenolic compounds found in the methanolic extract of C. vulgaris may be responsible for its higher antioxidant activity (Aremu et al. 2016;Muszyńska et al. 2016). Materials and methods It has been demonstrated that phenolic compounds found in C. vulgaris prevent the activity of free radicals thereby Materials preventing the peroxidation of cell membranes of liver cells. This indicates that C. vulgaris has hepatoprotective activity Dietary supplements containing Chlorella vulgaris from a (Peng et al. 2009). Phenolic compounds from C. vulgaris commercial origin, two preparations in the powdered form show potential antioxidant activity by neutralizing free and four in the tablet form, were evaluated (Table 1). Names radicals and prevent DNA damage, which in turn prevents of the dietary supplements were changed to Chlorella S, A, O, tumorigenesis. Furthermore, the extracts of C. vulgaris M, B, and C to retain privacy. activate apoptosis in tumor cells. Yusof et al. (2010)demon- strated the in vitro antitumor activity using HepG2 hepatocel- lular carcinoma cells after incubating the cells with extracts of Reagents C. vulgaris obtained using a hot method. Their results showed an increased expression of proteins such as p53 (transcription All phenolic compounds used in this study were of standard factor regulating the activation of DNA repair mechanisms high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) grade. p- and apoptosis in response to DNA damage), enhanced activity Coumaric was from Fluka (Switzerland) and p- of Bax (proteins affecting an accelerated rate of the apoptosis hydroxybenzoic acid, cinnamic acid, kaempferol-7- process), caspase-3, and decrease in production of Bcl-2 pro- rhamnoside, apigenin, and the xanthophyll lutein were pur- teins (B-cell lymphoma 2) that accelerate the apoptosis of chased from Sigma-Aldrich (USA). Epigallocatechin and epi- tumor cells (Yusof et al. 2010). Naturally occurring lutein is gallocatechin gallate were from ChromaDex (USA). J Appl Phycol (2018) 30:1629–1640 1631 Table 1 Dietary supplements containing Chlorella vulgaris which were Apparatus used in study The release of active compounds from the preparations con- Product preparation Form Expiry date Country taining C. vulgaris was examined using the prototype Chlorella S Powder 11. 2017 Poland Gastroel-2014 apparatus, which was constructed at the Chlorella A Powder 07. 2018 China Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry at the Chlorella O Tablets 10. 2018 China Faculty of Pharmacy, Medical College, Jagiellonian Chlorella M Tablets 08. 2018 China University (Opoka et al. 2016). This apparatus was used to Chlorella B Tablets 03. 2018 China examine the release of compounds into the artificial digestive Chlorella C Tablets 01. 2019 Taiwan juices; it imitates gastrointestinal motions and provides a con- Chlorella C Tablets 09. 2017 Taiwan stant temperature of 37 °C. Mineralization of the preparations containing C. vulgaris was performed in the Magnum II microwave mineralizer HPLC grade methanol, acetic acid, dichloromethane, and ERTEC (Poland) for 1 h in three magnetron cycles: 15 min petroleum ether were from Merck (Germany). MgCl was at 60% power, 15 min at 80% power, and 30 min at 100% from Chempur (Poland); NaCl, KCl, and NaHCO were from power. Mineralization of solutions after digestion with artifi- PPH Golpharm (Poland); pepsin and bile salts were from BTL cial digestive juices using Gastroel-2014 was performed in the (Łódź,Poland);CaCl was from Pharma Zentrale GmbH UV R-8 mineral Polish mineralizer, which was performed by (Germany); pancreatic extract, HCl, KCl, concentrated UV irradiation of the mineralized test solution in a quartz HNO Suprapur, and KNO , Suprapur were from Merck reaction vessel in 5 cycles of 6–8 h each. 3 3 (Germany); C H O ,ZnSO ,KHCO ,Na HPO ,K HPO , Thermo Scientific AA Spectrometer iCE 3000 SERIES 6 8 7 4 3 2 4 2 4 and NaOH were from the Polish Company of Chemistry UK was used to measure metals in samples. (Gliwice, Poland). Water (quadruple-distilled) with a conduc- The analysis of phenolic compounds and lutein was per- −1 tivity of less than 1 μScm was obtained using an S2-97A2 formed using an HPLC VWR Hitachi-Merck apparatus with distillation apparatus (ChemLand, Poland). the following analytical conditions: autosampler L-2200, pump L-2130, LiChrospher RP-18e column (250 × 4 mm, 5 μm) thermostated at 25 °C, column oven L-2350, and diode Preparation of artificial digestive juices array detector L-2455 at the UV range of 200–400 nm. Artificial saliva Sample preparation Briefly, 100 mL of KH PO at a concentration of 2 4 −1 Analysis of metals in the preparations containing C. vulgaris 25 mmol L ,100mL of Na HPO at a concentration of 2 4 −1 24 mmol L , 100 mL of KHCO at a concentration of −1 The samples were mineralized to determine the content of 150 mmol L , 100 mL of MgCl at a concentration of −1 metals (Mg, Zn, and Fe) in the preparations containing 1.5 mmol L ,6mL of C H O at a concentration of 6 8 7 −1 C. vulgaris. Then, 0.2 g of the preparations was weighed with 25 mmol L , and 100 mL of CaCl at a concentration of −1 an accuracy of 0.1 mg and was transferred into a Teflon vessel 15 mmol L were subsequently added to a flask and then, to which 2 mL of perhydrol and 6 mL of concentrated nitric four-time-distilled water was added to bring the total volume acid were added. Mineralization was performed in a closed to 1000 mL (Arvidson and Johasson 1985). system (microwave mineralizer) until a clear, colorless solu- tion was obtained. The solutions after mineralization were Artificial gastric juice transferred to quartz evaporators and evaporated to Balmost dry^ on a heating plate at a temperature of approximately Briefly, 2.0 g of NaCl and 3.2 g of pepsin were dissolved in 200 °C to remove excess of reagents. Four-time-distilled water four-time-distilled water; then, 80 mL of HCl at a concentra- was added to the residue for a quantitative transfer to a volu- −1 tion of 1 mol L was added to bring the volume to 1 L (Polish metric flask, which was then filled with water to obtain a Pharmacopoeia 2014). volume of 10 mL. Artificial intestinal juice Analysis of metals and organic compounds in the extracts of preparations containing C. vulgaris Briefly, 20 mg of the pancreatic extract, 120 mg of a bile salt, and8.4gof NaHCO were dissolved in four-time-distilled Extracts of C. vulgaris preparations were obtained as a result water to obtain a total volume of 1 L (Neumann et al. 2006). of in vitro digestion using Gastroel-2014. The samples were 1632 J Appl Phycol (2018) 30:1629–1640 incubated with artificial gastric juice and in artificial intestinal the linear size of the area under the peak and the concen- juice for the same time intervals. tration of the reference standard. The results were Initially, 0.5 g of each sample was weighed and trans- expressed in milligram per 100 g of dry weight (d.w.). ferred to 100 mL Erlenmeyer flasks which was then wet- tedwithasolutionof artificial saliva(2mL, 1min). To this, 100 mL of gastric juice was added and the flasks RP-HPLC analysis of lutein were closed with a stopper and placed in the apparatus. The process of incubation continued for the next 30 and Lutein in artificial digestive juice extracts was separated 90 min. Then, the contents of the flasks were filtered and analyzed by using an RP18 column (4.6 × 250 mm, using a Büchner funnel and a vacuum set. The residue 5 μm) at 30 °C. The mobile phase consisted of solvent was transferred to the Erlenmeyer flasks together with A: methanol:water, 80:20 ( v/ v)and solventB: the filter and then 100 mL of intestinal juice was added. methanol:dichloromethane, 75:25 (v/v). The following gra- The digestion process lasted 30 and 90 min and then the dient procedure was used: starting at sample injection, 20% extracts were filtered again. Next, 5 mL of the obtained Bfor 5min, 20–60% B for 5 min, 60–100% B for 25 min, filtrates was collected for each of the determination of 100% B for 5 min, 100–20% B for 10 min, and 20% B for −1 metal content and organic compounds. A control sample 10 min. Theflowratewas 1.0mLmin (Yuan et al. 2008). was prepared in the same manner without adding the The comparison of UV spectra at λ = 450 nm and the re- preparation of C. vulgaris. The content of bioelements in tention times with the standard compound enabled the the analyzed, mineralized samples was examined by flame identification of the lutein present in the analyzed samples. atomic absorption spectrometry (F-AAS). Lutein and phe- nolic acids were analyzed by reversed phase high-pressure liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Analysis of tablet properties Analysis of Zn, Fe, and Mg content before and The tablets were evaluated as per the standard procedure de- after incubation with artificial digestive juices scribed in the European Pharmacopoeia 8th edition (2013.) for by using the F-AAS method uniformity of weight, hardness, friability, and disintegration time. Tablets were also tested for variation in thickness to Concentrations of Zn, Fe, and Mg were determined using the determine any variability associated with the tablet press or F-AAS method. Thermo Scientific AA Spectrometer iCE the method of preparation. 3000 series was used for all the measurements. Each sample Average weight of tablets was obtained according to was analyzed in quadruplicate, and the results are presented as pharmacopeia limits by weighing 20 randomly selected mean values. Satisfactory agreement between the determined tablets on an analytical balance (OHAUS Adventurer and the certified element concentration values was achieved. Pro). Hardness was determined for at least ten tablets by using the Erweka TBH 20 hardness tester (Erweka RP-HPLC analysis of phenolic compounds GmbH) and adopting a minimum hardness of 40 N as the acceptance criterion. For each formula, friability was The extracts obtained from the digestive juices were ana- evaluated from the percentage weight loss of 20 tablets lyzed for the contents of phenolic compounds by using tumbled in a Erweka TAR 120 friabilator (Erweka GmbH, the RP-HPLC method. These analyses were performed Hausenstamm, Germany) at 25 rpm for 4 min. The tablets according to the procedure developed by Sułkowska- were dedusted, and the loss in weight caused by fracture Ziaja et al. (2017). The analyses were performed at or abrasion was recorded as the percentage weight loss. 25 °C, with a mobile phase consisting of A—methanol, Friability of less than 1% was considered acceptable. The B—methanol:0.5% acetic acid, 1:4 (v/v). The gradient respective disintegration times of the prepared tablets was as follows: 100% B for 0–20 min; 100–80% B for were measured in 900 mL 20–35 min; 80–60% B for 35–55 min; 60–0% B for 55– of purified water with disks at 37 °C by using an ERWEKA 70 min; 0% B for 70–75 min; 0–100% B for 75–80 min; ZT 222 tester (Erweka GmbH). Six tablets were randomly −1 and 100% B for 80–90 min at a flow rate of 1 mL min , selected from each formulation and were put into a basket λ = 254 nm (phenolic acids and catechins) and λ = 370 nm rack. The disintegration time was recorded until all the frag- (flavonoids). Phenolic compounds were quantified by ments of the disintegrated tablet passed through the screen of measuring the peak area with reference to the standard the basket. For nonmodified tablets, the disintegration time curve derived from five concentrations (0.03– should be no longer than 15 min. Thickness of the tablet −1 0.50 mg mL ). A quantitative analysis of phenolic com- was determined for 20 tablets by using a digital vernier caliper pounds was performed using a calibration curve assuming (0–150 mm). J Appl Phycol (2018) 30:1629–1640 1633 Statistical analysis times greater than in the control samples (methanol extracts from C. vulgaris-containing preparations). Epigallocatechin Values are presented as mean ± standard deviation (SD). All was extracted in higher quantities from the intestinal juice experiments were performed four times. Statistical analysis after 90 min in case of powder (Chlorella A) and tablets −1 was performed using one-way ANOVA with the Tukey– (Chlorella B), 50.41 and 54.27 mg (100 g) d.w., respective- Kramer post hoc method of multiple comparisons. p <0.05 ly, which was approximately 2.5–56 times greater than in case −1 was accepted as the level of statistical significance. of control (20.09 and 8.42 mg (100 g) d.w., respectively). A Chemometric tools were used to facilitate the analysis and phenolic compound that was not released into the artificial interpretation of the data obtained in the experiment; these digestive juices, but is extracted in methanol, was epigallocat- −1 included the two main methods: cluster analysis (CA) and echin gallate (1.14–2.17 mg (100 g) d.w.). principal component analysis (PCA). CA enabled the identi- Lutein, the primary metabolite present in algae, was re- fication of groups of similar objects (preparation with leased into the artificial digestive juices only from the tablets −1 C. vulgaris) that were described by nine parameters (concen- ranging from 42.91 to 70.58 mg (100 g) d.w. tration of metals and organic compounds). PCA as a method F-AAS, which is one of the most common analytical tech- of calculation allowed the reduction of the data size and dem- niques used to analyzed bioelements, was used to determine onstration of the correlations between the objects in a two- the content of Zn, Fe, and Mg metals in preparations contain- dimensional space. Calculations were performed using ing C. vulgaris (powder and tablets) and in extracts obtained GraphPad InStat (USA) and Statgraphics Centurion XVII. incubation with digestive juices. The developed mineraliza- Statistical significance was established at p <0.05. tion conditions of lyophilized material and the applied analyt- ical method allowed an effective determination of elements in the preparations and extracts of artificial digestive juices. In Results this study, the preparations containing C. vulgaris were sub- jected to quantitative determination of Zn, Mg, and Fe The preparations of C. vulgaris were incubated with artificial (Table 3). According to the literature, C. vulgaris is rich in −1 digestive juices (Gastroel-2014 apparatus) to estimate the ac- macroelements such as phosphorus (1761.5 mg (100 g) of −1 tual quantities of bioelements, phenolic compounds, and lu- dry matter), potassium (749.9 mg (100 g) ), calcium −1 −1 tein available to humans. The incubation was performed under (593.7 mg (100 g) ), magnesium (344.3 mg (100 g) ), and −1 conditions imitating those in the human gastrointestinal tract microelements such as iron (259.1 mg (100 g) )(Tokusoglu (temperature of 37 °C and movements mimicking peristalsis 2003). According to these data, the intake of 3 g of the in the gastrointestinal tract). C. vulgaris extract fulfills the daily iron requirements for The following phenolic compounds were determined using men, whereas 7 g is needed for women (according to RDA the RP-HPLC method after incubation with artificial digestive standards, Institute of Medicine 2001)(Fig. 1a). According to juices from the preparations containing C. vulgaris: p- the results of our study, the amount of iron found after incu- hydroxybenzoic acid, p-coumaric acid, cinnamic acid, bation with artificial digestive juices is insufficient to supple- kaempferol 7-rhamnoside, epigallocatechin gallate, apigenin, ment the deficiency of this element in humans, as in case of and lutein from the xanthophyll group (Table 2). the release of zinc and magnesium from the preparations into The highest amounts of phenolic compounds released into the artificial digestive juices (Table 3). Thus, zinc content after the artificial digestive juices as compared to the control sam- digestion of samples for 30 min in artificial digestive juices ples (methanol extracts) were as follows: p-hydroxybenzoic (usually 9–15 tablets of these supplements are administered, acid, cinnamic acid, kaempferol 7-rhamnoside, and apigenin. corresponding to 4 g of extract per day) was found to be on an With respect to p-hydroxybenzoic acid, the largest amounts average only 0.804 μg, whereas the daily requirement of men for all preparations were extracted in the artificial intestinal and women is 11 mg (Fig. 1b). This implies that only 0.01% of juice after an extraction time of 30 min (0.86–2.74 mg the zinc requirement per day is supplied from the preparations −1 (100 g) d.w.). p-Coumaric acid was determined only in tab- containing C. vulgaris. Chlorella vulgaris contains chloro- lets, and its content was significantly lower (0.27–1.15 mg phyll, which constitutes 1–2% dry matter, and thus, it provides −1 (100 g) d.w.) than that of methanolic extracts (1.62– significant amounts of magnesium (Bashan et al. 2002). −1 4.48 mg (100 g) d.w.). Cinnamic acid (both in the artificial Magnesium content in control samples (mineralized formula- −1 digestive juices and in each time interval) was found in similar tions) was in the range of 1521–3221 μgg d.w. However, −1 contents, which ranged from 0.03 to 0.34 mg (100 g) d.w. after digestion with digestive juices, it was found to be much Lower levels of this metabolite was noted in methanolic ex- lower, and by using similar dosage assumptions as in case of −1 tracts (0.02–0.1 mg (100 g) d.w.). Apigenin and kaempferol zinc and magnesium, the average magnesium available was 7-rhamnoside were determined in significantly higher quanti- 306.57 μg(Fig. 1c). This quantity can only supplement 7.7% ties in any time variant; their concentrations were up to 15 of the daily requirement for men and 9.9% for women. In case 1634 J Appl Phycol (2018) 30:1629–1640 Table 2 Content of phenolic compounds and lutein in the extracts of preparations containing Chlorella vulgaris after digestion with artificial digestive juices Artificial juice Gastric juice Intestinal juice Methanolic extract Extract to artificial digestive juice 30 90 30 90 After incubation in artificial saliva After incubation in artificial intestinal juice −1 p-Hydroxybenzoic acid (mg (100 g) ) a a a a Chlorella S (powder) 1.18 ± 0.12 1.08 ± 0.08 1.66 ± 0.06 1.81 ± 0.98 0.37 ± 0.01 a,b a,b b b b Chlorella A (powder) 0.64 ± 0.06 0.55 ± 0.08 2.74 ± 0.68 2.15 ± 0.22 0.38 ± 0.00 b,c c b a,b,c Chlorella O (tablets) 1.05 ± 0.18 0.91 ± 0.30 1.56 ± 0.34 0.68 ± 0.03 0.87 ± 0.00 a,c b,d a,b,c,d Chlorella M (tablets) 0.50 ± 0.02 1.25 ± 0.19 1.35 ± 0.09 1.13 ± 0.55 0.57 ± 0.03 a,c a,d c.d Chlorella B (tablets) 0.51 ± 0.05 0.56 ± 0.05 2.15 ± 0.29 0.84 ± 0.14 0.34 ± 0.00 a,c a,c,d b a c,d Chlorella C (tablets) 0.39 ± 0.05 0.42 ± 0.03 0.86 ± 0.26 0.40 ± 0.03 0.31 ± 0.07 −1 p-Coumaric acid (mg (100 g) ) Chlorella S (powder) nd nd nd nd 2.53 ± 0.11 a,b Chlorella A (powder) nd nd nd nd 1.87 ± 0.08 c c a,b,c Chlorella O (tablets) nd nd 0.42 ± 0.20 0.31 ± 0.15 4.48 ± 0.17 d c a,b,c,d Chlorella M (tablets) nd nd 0.27 ± 0.10 1.15 ± 0.02 2.19 ± 0.02 e b,c,e Chlorella B (tablets) nd nd 0.28 ± 0.05 nd 2.31 ± 0.03 c,d,e a,c,d,e Chlorella C (tablets) nd nd nd nd 1.62 ± 0.07 −1 Cinnamic acid (mg (100 g) ) a a a a a Chlorella S (powder) 0.27 ± 0.03 0.34 ± 0.05 0.24 ± 0.01 0.14 ± 0.02 0.02 ± 0.01 a,b a a,b b a,b Chlorella A (powder) 0.12 ± 0.01 0.15 ± 0.02 0.18 ± 0.02 0.17 ± 0.03 0.08 ± 0.00 a,b,c c a,c a,b,c a,b,c Chlorella O (tablets) 0.08 ± 0.001 0.10 ± 0.09 0.19 ± 0.02 0.08 ± 0.001 0.10 ± 0.00 a,d a a,b,c a,b,d a,b.c,d Chlorella M (tablets) 0.09 ± 0.002 0.11 ± 0.09 0.06 ± 0.001 0.05 ± 0.007 0.07 ± 0.00 a,b a a,b,c a,b,c,d a,b,c,e Chlorella B (tablets) 0.06 ± 0.001 0.05 ± 0.004 0.03 ± 0.005 0.05 ± 0.00 0.07 ± 0.00 a,b,c,d a a,b,c a,b a,b,c,d,e Chlorella C (tablets) 0.03 ± 0.005 0.04 ± 0.001 0.06 ± 0.003 0.04 ± 0.001 0.09 ± 0.00 −1 Kaempferol 7-rhamnoside (mg (100 g) ) a a a a Chlorella S (powder) 8.03 ± 0.71 10.88 ± 0.53 9.01 ± 1.96 6.44 ± 1.13 1.25 ± 0.01 a b a,b a,b Chlorella A (powder) 6.35 ± 1.00 6.41 ± 1.40 11.78 ± 1.70 13.45 ± 3.05 1.17 ± 0.00 a b b a,b,c Chlorella O (tablets) 5.92 ± 0.85 6.65 ± 0.44 7.53 ± 1.14 5.64 ± 0.76 4.32 ± 0.02 a a b b a,b,c,d Chlorella M (tablets) 5.63 ± 0.95 6.85 ± 1.30 5.87 ± 0.77 5.13 ± 0.37 2.77 ± 0.00 a a b b a,b,c,d,e Chlorella B (tablets) 5.23 ± 0.56 5.21 ± 0.63 7.19 ± 0.48 6.25 ± 0.51 1.31 ± 0.00 a a b b a,b,c,d,e Chlorella C (tablets) 4.47 ± 0.47 5.16 ± 0.33 5.80±0.71 4.30 ± 0.31 1.35 ± 0.01 −1 Epigallocatechin (mg (100 g) ) a a a a Chlorella S (powder) 15.75 ± 1.15 12.47 ± 3.16 25.59 ± 5.23 5.18 ± 0.57 20.90 ± 0.66 b b a a,b b Chlorella A (powder) 15.80 ± 0.84 13.52 ± 1.70 19.35 ± 1.60 50.41 ± 5.6.0 20.09 ± 0.14 a,b c c a,b,c a,b,c Chlorella O (tablets) 8.65 ± 0.52 12.60 ± 1.10 18.63 ± 3.13 31.60 ± 5.98 13.41 ± 1.27 a,b a,d b,c,d a,b,c,d Chlorella M (tablets) 9.34 ± 0.83 11.91 ± 3.28 11.59 ± 3.08 7.81 ± 2.87 6.37 ± 0.54 a,b a,b,c d,e a,c,de a,b,c,e Chlorella B (tablets) 8.56 ± 1.00 5.92 ± 1.51 20.22 ± 1.56 54.27 ± 5.38 8.42 ± 0.16 a,b a,b,c,e a,b,d,e Chlorella C (tablets) 10.17 ± 2.30 10.13 ± 0.64 6.26 ± 1.15 nd 14.04 ± 2.33 −1 Epigallocatechin gallate (mg (100 g) ) Chlorella S (powder) nd nd nd nd 1.14 ± 0.23 a,b Chlorella A (powder) nd nd nd nd 2.17 ± 0.02 a,b,c Chlorella O (tablets) nd nd nd nd 1.63 ± 0.00 b,c Chlorella M (tablets) nd nd nd nd 1.36 ± 0.01 a,b Chlorella B (tablets) nd nd nd nd 1.42 ± 0.01 Chlorella C (tablets) nd nd nd nd nd −1 Apigenin (mg (100 g) ) a a a a a Chlorella S (powder) 16.84 ± 1.89 23.40 ± 1.36 23.26 ± 4.91 16.93 ± 2.46 2.95 ± 0.05 a a,b a,b Chlorella A (powder) 15.81 ± 0.17 18.11 ± 3.12 18.50 ± 0.73 21.91 ± 2.70 3.30 ± 0.01 J Appl Phycol (2018) 30:1629–1640 1635 Table 2 (continued) Artificial juice Gastric juice Intestinal juice Methanolic extract Extract to artificial digestive juice 30 90 30 90 After incubation in artificial saliva After incubation in artificial intestinal juice a b b,c Chlorella O (tablets) 16.52 ± 0.48 16.10 ± 0.05 20.00 ± 1.21 14.71 ± 0.04 2.97 ± 0.21 a b a,b,c,d Chlorella M (tablets) 14.81 ± 0.01 18.94 ± 2.46 16.83 ± 0.05 14.73 ± 0.01 nd a b d Chlorella B (tablets) 16.02 ± 1.46 16.08 ± 1.14 19.81 ± 0.10 16.31 ± 0.68 3.22 ± 0.00 a a b a,c,d Chlorella C (tablets) 13.66 ± 1.13 15.58 ± 0.16 18.93 ± 0.26 13.04 ± 1.14 3.33 ± 0.20 −1 Lutein (mg (100 g) ) Chlorella S (powder) nd nd nd nd 867.80 ± 90.41 a,b Chlorella A (powder) nd nd nd nd 723.47 ± 60.82 c c a,b.c Chlorella O (tablets) nd nd 70.58 ± 5.23 50.45 ± 0.04 497.17 ± 39.11 c d a,b,d Chlorella M (tablets) nd 58.33 ± 0.01 58.36 ± 0.04 50.93 ± 0.31 468.05 ± 0.71 a,b,c,d,e Chlorella B (tablets) nd nd 67.85 ± 0.10 nd 73.12 ± 7.71 c c,d a,b,e Chlorella C (tablets) nd nd 57.24 ± 8.19 42.91 ± 3.31 527.56 ± 53.31 n = 3 in triplicate; the Tukey–Kramer test was used to reveal the differences between paired groups of elements in rows; the same superscript letters (a, b, c, d, and e) are marked for which the content differences are statistically significant (for p values < 0.05) nd not detected of iron, 8.74 μg was found in the sample after digestion with Discussion artificial digestive juices, which supplements 10.9% of the daily requirement for men and 4.8% for women. The primary phenolic compounds determined in preparations Tablets containing C. vulgaris disintegrated in the artificial containing C. vulgaris are both benzoic and cinnamic acid digestive juices only after approximately 30 min. Therefore, derivatives. According to the literature, C. vulgaris contains the physical properties of tablets containing C. vulgaris were phenolic compounds such as salicylic acid, trans-cinnamic ensured to be according to the European Pharmacopoeia 8th acid, chlorogenic acid, and caffeic acid (Miranda et al. edition ( 2013). Table 4 lists the physical properties of the 2001). In this study, we detected the presence of the following prepared tablets in terms of the uniformity of weight, hard- phenolic compounds in preparations containing C. vulgaris: ness, friability, and disintegration time. The tablets were also p-hydroxybenzoic acid, p-coumaric acid, and cinnamic acid. tested for variation in thickness to determine any variability In addition, the samples contained kaempferol 7-rhamnoside, associated with the tablet press or the method of preparation. epigallocatechin gallate, and apigenin. According to the The thickness of the tablets ranged from 4.3 ± 0.05 to literature, these compounds are bioavailable for humans. 5.78 ± 0.28 mm. In case of Chlorella B (tablets), the per- Chlorella extracts rich in phenolic compounds exhibit centage deviation of thickness exceeded 5% (acceptable strong antioxidant activity. Peng et al. (2009) performed range of thickness: ± 5%). The average weight, hardness, in vivo experiments using rats to test the antioxidant activity and friability were within the pharmacopeia specifica- of Chlorella extracts. The animals were fed on diet enriched tions. Variation in weight ranged from 196.95 ± 2.31 to with tetrachloromethane, an organic chemical compound in 401.95 ± 15.72 mg (acceptable range of weight variation: which all hydrogen atoms are replaced by strong, electroneg- ± 7.5% for tablets weighing up to 249 mg and ± 5% for ative chlorine atoms exhibiting strong hepatotoxicity leading tablets weighing more than 250 mg). Hardness of tablets to jaundice and in severe cases to cirrhosis. ranged from 62.8 ± 8.3 to 109.2 ± 16.94 N (acceptable Tetrachloromethane in the liver cells is metabolized to the range of hardness: > 40 N), and friability ranged from trichloromethyl radical, which reacts with oxygen to form a 0.03 to 0.152% (acceptable range of friability: < 1%) more reactive radical –� CCl O � . According to their results, 3 2 (European Pharmacopoeia 8th edition, 2013). phenolic compounds found in Chlorella extracts prevented Disintegration times of the investigated tablets exceeded the damage caused by the free radical attack and the peroxi- 15 min. All tablet formulations had excessively long dis- dation of liver cell membranes, indicating the hepatoprotec- integration times, which ranged from 36.67 to tive activity of Chlorella extracts (Peng et al. 2009). 125.67 min. The average disintegration time of the inves- Lutein is a yellow organic carotenoid pigment. Its content −1 tigatedtablets wasupto61.17min. in C. vulgaris ranged from 5 to 383 mg (100 g) dry matter 1636 J Appl Phycol (2018) 30:1629–1640 Table 3 Content of bioelements determined using the F-AAS method in preparations containing Chlorella vulgaris after extraction to artificial digestive juices −1 Zn (μgg of preparation) Digestive juice Gastric juice Intestinal juice Control Incubation time (min) 30 90 After 30 min in gastric juice After 90 min in gastric juice Amount of Zn Chlorella S (powder) a a a a a released 0.58 ± 0.03 0.81 ± 0.02 0.13 ± 0.003 0.11 ± 0.002 8.25 ± 0.12 Chlorella A (powder) a,b a,b a,b a,b a,b 1.43 ± 0.002 1.99 ± 0.013 0.03 ± 0.001 0.05 ± 0.002 28.94 ± 0.1 Chlorella O (tablets) a,b,c a,b,c a,c a,b,c a,b,c 0.36 ± 0.002 0.77 ± 0.008 0.05 ± 0.001 0.06 ± 0.001 12.3 ± 0.1 Chlorella M (tablets) a,b,c,d a,b,c,d a,b,c,d a,b,c,d a,b,c,d 0.074 ± 0.001 0.48 ± 0.002 0.80 ± 0.004 0.67 ± 0.003 9.4 ± 0.2 Chlorella B (tablets) a,b,c,d,e a,b,c,d,e b,c,d,e a,b,c,d, a,b,c, 0.822 ± 0.003 1.15 ± 0.002 0.13 ± 0.001 0.09 ± 0.001 48.1 ± 1.2 Chlorella C (tablets) a,b,d,e a,b,c,d,e a,d,e a,b,c,d, a,b,c, 0.367 ± 0.005 0.42 ± 0.004 0.01 ± 0.001 0.09 ± 0.002 21.5 ± 0.3 −1 Fe (μgg of preparation) Amount of Fe released Chlorella S (powder) a a a a a 1.12 ± 0.02 1.11 ± 0.02 1.25 ± 0.03 1.03 ± 0.03 1210.1 ± 2.20 Chlorella A (powder) a,b a,b a,b a,b a,b 6.58 ± 0.01 7.54 ± 0.04 1.14 ± 0.02 1.23 ± 0.01 1520.2 ± 4.5 Chlorella O (tablets) a,b,c a,b,c a,b,c a,b,c a,b,c 2.44 ± 0.08 9.96 ± 0.03 3.60 ± 0.01 3.15 ± 0.07 2112.0 ± 2.0 Chlorella M (tablets) a,b,c,d a,b,c,d a,b,c,d a,b,c,d a,b,c,d 7.24 ± 0.05 9.81 ± 0.52 3.48 ± 0.05 2.79 ± 0.01 1960.2 ± 5.0 Chlorella B (tablets) a,b,c,d,e a,b,c,d,e a,b,c,d,e a,b,c,d,e a,b,c,d,e 1.54 ± 0.02 5.12 ± 0.02 2.42 ± 0.02 3.90 ± 0.04 1089.0 ± 7.5 Chlorella C (tablets) a,b,c,d,e a,b,c,d,e b,c,d,e a,b,c,d,e a,b,c,d,e 1.33 ± 0.02 2.82 ± 0.03 1.22 ± 0.02 1.35 ± 0.02 879.6 ± 6.2 −1 Mg (μgg of preparation) Amount of Mg released Chlorella S (powder) a a a a a 153.55 ± 1.66 233.13 ± 4.60 35.15 ± 2.63 33.70 ± 1.20 3221.5 ± 2.5 Chlorella A (powder) a,b a,b a,b a,b a,b 239.82 ± 1.16 188.18 ± 1.30 77.30 ± 1.85 105.92 ± 0.57 1521.5 ± 4.0 Chlorella O (tablets) a,b,c a,b,c a,b,c a,b,c a,b,c 93.80 ± 0.65 262.68 ± 2.95 87.91 ± 3.08 115.28 ± 1.70 2626.0 ± 5.3 Chlorella M (tablets) a,b,c,d a,b,c,d a,b,c,d a,c,d a,b,c,d 117.31 ± 1.95 117.34 ± 1.70 133.43 ± 1.30 108.15 ± 3.10 1942.0 ± 3.1 Chlorella B (tablets) a,b,c,d,e a,b,c,d,e a,b,c,d,e a,b,c,d,e a,b,c,d,e 58.47 ± 0.85 125.74 ± 1.65 92.16 ± 1.15 92.84 ± 0.85 2665.0 ± 6.0 Chlorella C (tablets) a,b,c,d,e a,b,c,d,e b,c,d,e a,b,c,d,e a,b,c,d,e 50.77 ± 0.70 68.91 ± 0.65 33.91 ± 1.10 24.05 ± 1.30 3062.5 ± 2.1 n = 3 in triplicate; the Tukey–Kramer test was used for revealing the differences between paired groups of elements in rows; the same superscript letters (a, b, c, d, and e) are marked for which the content differences are statistically significant (for p values of < 0.05) (Gonzalez and Bashan 2000; Kitada et al. 2009; Safi et al. of the retina with a distinctive yellow color due to the presence 2014). In humans, the highest concentration of lutein is found of lutein and zeaxanthin. Lutein exhibits a strong antioxidant in the yellow spot, which is a 7–8-mm round area on the inside effect on the free radicals of the reactive oxygen species J Appl Phycol (2018) 30:1629–1640 1637 −1 −1 −1 Fig. 1 Radar chart showing the amount of extracted a Fe [μgg ], b Zn [μgg ], and c Mg [μgg ] for artificial gastric juice and artificial intestinal juice, depending on the incubation time (ROS) class, which are generated by oxidative phosphoryla- over a relatively wide range, does not give a clear indication of tion in the mitochondria on the outer stamen segment. the observations of systematic changes. In this case, the use of Furthermore, the increased production of ROS may be due chemometric tools should be useful. Chemometric tools allow to hypoxia of the photosensitive retinal cells (Koushan et al. an analysis of data and their interpretation in an easy and 2013). accessible manner. The task of chemometry is to Bextract^ The amount of lutein, although less than in the control meaningful information about relationships between mea- samples, were sufficient to supplement approximately 40– sured variables or objects. This is possible after applying ap- 60% of the daily requirement for humans (the daily require- propriate mathematical analytical methods to eliminate the −1 ment ranges from 10 to 20 mg day )(Otten et al. 2006). anomalies associated with the measurements (Johnson 1984; According to the results provided in Tables 2 and 3,six Sharaf et al. 1986; Miller and Miller 1999). objects (preparations containing C. vulgaris)werefound to CA was used for the first set of analytical dataset. This be characterized by 11 features (variable with different con- method makes it possible to indicate a similarity (presented centrations of Mg, Zn, and Fe, and the content of the organic on dendrogram commonly called Btree^ (Fig. 2)), or a distinct compounds). Large number of variables, whose values change absence, between the subject matter being investigated Table 4 Evaluation of physical Formulations Weight variation Thickness Friability Breaking force Disintegration time properties of tablets (mean ± SD) (mg) (mm) (%) (N) (min) with Chlorella vulgaris Chlorella O 401.95 ± 15.72 5.78 ± 0.28 0.08 62.8 ± 8.3 42.16 ± 7.02 (tablets) Chlorella M 196.95 ± 2.31 4.17 ± 0.04 0.152 63.1 ± 5.93 36.67 ± 5.88 (tablets) Chlorella B 243.1 ± 3.32 4.3 ± 0.05 0.103 94.1 ± 7.13 40.17 ± 6.11 (tablets) Chlorella C 258.6 ± 6.35 5.06 ± 0.09 0.03 109.2 ± 16.94 125.67 ± 10.97 (tablets) 1638 J Appl Phycol (2018) 30:1629–1640 Fig. 2 Cluster analysis of the preparation with Chlorella vulgaris (the Euclidean distance square and Ward’s algorithm) (preparations containing C. vulgaris) or variables (analyzed Chlorella M formulations as evidenced by the shortest length elements and organic compounds) (Aldenderfer and of the dendrogram tree arms. The shorter the branch lengths Blashfield 1985; Everitt et al. 2001; Massart and Vander are, the greater is the similarity between the objects in question 2004;Gemperline 2006). (Johnson 1984). Based on our similarity analysis (CA, Fig. 2), we observed PCA has been used as the complementary method in this a subgroup of parameters with similar variability. These pa- study. PCA is considered a computational method that leads to rameters describe the concentrations of the individual vari- the limitation of the measurement data space to the amount ables. In practice, this implies that the course of change in required to describe the interactions between them. these variables is similar, which proves at the same time, a Parameters, mutually dependent, are replaced with new vari- high correlation between the objects. Thus, two primary aims ables, the so-called main components, which exclude the loss were distinguished. Within the first cluster, there are four for- of relevant information. Using PCA, we found that 75.4% of mulas: Chlorella S, Chlorella A, Chlorella B, and Chlorella C, the variations occurring within the analyzed dataset could be and the second cluster has two formulas: Chlorella O and described with the first three major components (PC1, PC2, Chlorella M. Their classification into individual clusters indi- and PC3). Bringing a multidimensional data system to the cates the similarity of their composition (content of organic three main components allowed us to conduct the analysis constituents and metals). Furthermore, we found that the on a flat projection of the three-dimensional space highest correlation occurred between Chlorella O and (Malinowski 1991;Henrion 1994; Massart and Vander Fig. 3 Biplot graph creates a three-dimensional space presented on the plane, showing the correlation between the analyzed ingredients found in the formulations containing Chlorella vulgaris and the site of the human gastric juice. Stomach juice (j. stomach) and intestinal juice (j. intestinal) J Appl Phycol (2018) 30:1629–1640 1639 2004). Considering the similarity of the objects with respect to References their place in the digestive system, which resulted in the re- lease of metals and organic compounds from the formulations Aldenderfer MS, Blashfield RK (1985) Cluster analysis. Sage Publications, Los Angeles containing C. vulgaris (Fig. 3), two distinct groups were iden- Aremu AO, Masondo NA, Molnár Z, Stirk WA, Ördög V, Van Staden J tified. The first group consisted of ingredients analyzed in the (2016) Changes in phytochemical content and pharmacological ac- gastric juice, while the other group contained those analyzed tivities of three Chlorella strains grown in different nitrogen condi- in the intestinal juice. Such a division indicated the correlation tions. J Appl Phycol 28:149–159 Arvidson K, Johasson EG (1985) Galvanic current between dental alloys between a given ingredient and the site of its release in the in vitro. Scad J Dent Res 93:467–472 body. Furthermore, taking into account the two-dimensional Baaij J (2015) Magnesium in man: implications for health and disease. graph (Fig. 3) obtained from the three main components, we Physiol Rev 95:1–46 made certain changes to the individual variables in the area of Bashan LE, Bashan Y, Moreno M, Lebsky VK, Bustillos JJ (2002) the digestive tract to which the formulation components were Increased pigment and lipid content, lipid variety, and cell and pop- ulation size of the microalgae Chlorella spp. when co-immobilized released. Thus, we found that from each of the investigated in alginate beads with the microalgae-growth-promoting bacterium preparations, both metals and organic compounds were re- Azospirillum brasilense. Can J Microbiol 48:514–521 leased into artificial digestive juices; moreover, the release Council of Europe (2013) European Pharmacopoeia 8th ed. Council of was targeted at a particular place in the digestive tract and Europe, Strasbourg depended on the component being analyzed. The organic Everitt BS, Landau S, Leese M (2001) Cluster analysis. Arnold Publishers, London compounds from the formulations were most released into Gemperline P (2006) Practical guide to chemometrics. Taylor & Francis, the intestinal juices. Absorption in the human body is most London likely in the intestine. Thus, we conclude that these prepara- Gonzalez LE, Bashan Y (2000) Increased growth of the microalga tions provide organic compounds to the body. In contrast, the Chlorella vulgaris when coimmobilized and co cultured in alginate beads with the plant—growth-promoting bacterium Azospirillum release of metals was in the greatest degree into the gastric brasilense. Appl Environ Microbiol 66:1527–1531 juices; this suggests that they are only slightly absorbed by the Görs M, Schumann Hepperle D, Karsten U (2010) Quality analysis of human body. commercial Chlorella products used as dietary supplement in hu- man nutrition. J Appl Phycol 22:265–276 Hasegawa T, Ito K, Ueno S, Kumamoto S, Ando Y, Yamada A, Yasunobu Y (1999) Oral administration of hot water extracts of Chlorella vulgaris reduces IgE production against milk casein in mice. Int J Conclusions Immunopharmacol 21:311–323 Henrion R (1994) N-way principal component analysis theory, algo- In this study, the usefulness of preparations containing rithms and applications. Chemometr Intell Lab 25:1–23 Institute of Medicine (2001) Dietary reference intakes for vitamin A, C. vulgaris in the supplementation of daily diets with the vitamin K, arsenic, boron, chromium, copper, iodine, iron, manga- examined compounds for humans has been evaluated on the nese, molybdenum, nickel, silicon, vanadium, and zinc. The basis of the analysis of the extracts incubated with artificial National Academies Press, Washington. DC digestive juices, and the concentration of phenolic compounds Johnson R (1984) Elementary statistics 4th edition. PWN Publishers, and lutein in the digestive juices. The qualitative composition USA Justo GZ, Silva MR, Queiroz M (2001) Effects of the green algae of bioelements was consistent with the manufacturer’sdecla- Chlorella vulgaris on the response of the host hematopoietic system rations on the packaging containing C. vulgaris,withrespect to intraperitoneal ehrlich ascites tumor transplantation in mice. to the controls, but the examined elements were found to be Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol 23:119–132 negligible in the artificial digestive juices. Therefore, these Kitada K, Machmudah S, Sasaki M, Goto M, Nakashima Y, Kumamoto S (2009) Supercritical CO extraction of pigment components with preparations cannot be considered to be a good source of 2 pharmaceutical importance from Chlorella vulgaris.JChem elements such as iron, magnesium, or zinc. An important ele- Technol Biotechnol 84:657–661 ment in the study of an effect of dietary supplements on Koushan K, Rusovici R, Li W, Ferguson L, Chalam K (2013) The role of humans is also primarily the way of preparing the form of lutein in eye-related disease. Nutrients 5:1823–1839 the preparation such that the active substances are released Kwak JH, Baek SH, Woo Y, Han JK, Kim BG, Kim OY, Lee JH (2012) Beneficial immunostimulatory effect of short-term Chlorella sup- from it in the most effective manner. plementation: enhancement of natural killer cell activity and early inflammatory response (randomized, double-blinded, placebo- controlled trial). Nut J 11(53). https://doi.org/10.1186/1475-2891- Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative 11-53 Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http:// Livingstone C (2015) Zinc: physiology, deficiency, and parenteral nutri- creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, tion. Nutr Clin Pract 30:371–382 distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appro- Malinowski ER (1991) Factor analysis in chemistry. John Wiley & Sons, priate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the New York Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. Massart DL, Vander HY (2004) From tables to visuals: principal compo- nent analysis. LC-GC Europe 18:84–89 1640 J Appl Phycol (2018) 30:1629–1640 Miller JN, Miller JC (1999) Statistics and chemometrics for analytical Sharaf MA, Illman L, Kowalski BRC (1986) Hemometrics. John Wiley &Sons, USA chemistry. Prentice Hall, London Miranda MS, Sato S, Mancini-Filho J (2001) Antioxidant activity of the Suetsuna K, Chen JR (2001) Identification of antihypertensive peptides microalga Chlorella vulgaris cultered on special conditions. Boll from peptic digest of two microalgae, Chlorella vulgaris and Chim Farm 140:165–168 Spirulina platensis. Mar Biotech 3:305–309 Muszyńska B, Łojewski M, Sułkowska-Ziaja K, Szewczyk A, Gdula- Sułkowska-Ziaja K, Maślanka A, Szewczyk A, Muszyńska B (2017) Argasińska J, Hałaszuk P (2016) In vitro cultures of Bacopa Physiologically active compounds in four species of Phellinus. monnieri (L. Pennell) and an analysis of selected groups of biolog- NPC 12:363–366 ically active metabolites in their biomass. Pharm Biol 4:1–11 Terés S, Barceló-Coblijn G, Benet M, Álvares R, Bressani R, Halver JE, Neumann M, Goderska K, Grajek K, Grajek W (2006) Modele przewodu Escriba PV (2008) Oleic acid content is responsible for the reduction pokarmowego in vitro do badań nad biodostępnością składników in blood pressure induced by olive oil. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 105: odżywczych. Żywność Technologia Nauka Jakość 1:30–45 (in Polish) 13811–13816 Opoka W, Muszyńska B, Rojowski J, Rumian J (2016) Gastroel-2014. Terpinc P, Abramovic H (2010) A kinetic approach for evaluation of the Poland Patent Application P 417238 antioxidant activity of selected phenolic acids. Food Chem 121: Otten JJ, Hellwig JP, Meyers LD (2006) Dietary reference intakes. 366–371 National Academies Press, Washington, D.C. Tokusoglu U (2003) Biomass nutrient profiles of three microalgae: Peng HY, Chu YC, Chen SJ, Chou ST (2009) Hepatoprotection of Spirulina platensis, Chlorella vulgaris and Isochrysis galbana.J Chlorella against carbon tetrachloride-induced oxidative damage Food Sci 68:1144–1148 in rats. In Vivo 23: 747–754 Yuan JP, Kuang HC, Wang JH, Liu X (2008) Evaluation of ergosterol and Polish Pharmacopoeia (2014) Ed. X, PTFarm, Warszawa its esters in the pileus, gill, and stipe tissues of agaric fungi and their Přibyl P, Cepák V, Zachleder V (2013) Production of lipids and formation relative changes in the comminuted fungal tissues. Appl Microbiol and mobilization of lipid bodies in Chlorella vulgaris. J Appl Phycol Biot 80:459–465 25:545–553 Yusof YA, Saad SM, Makpol S, Shamaan NA, Ngah WW (2010) Hot Safi C, Zebib B, Merah O, Pontalier PY, Vaca-Garcia C (2014) water extract of Chlorella vulgaris induced DNA damage and apo- Morphology, composition, production, processing and applications ptosis. Clinics 65:1371–1377 of Chlorella vulgaris: a review. Renew Sust Energ Rev 35:265–278 Shi X-M, Chen F, Yuan J-P, Chen H (1997) Heterotrophic production of Seyfabadi J, Ramezanpour Z, Amini Khoeyi Z (2011) Protein, fatty acid, lutein by selected Chlorella strains. J Appl Phycol 9:445–450 and pigment content of Chlorella vulgaris under different light re- gimes. J Appl Phycol 23:721–726

Journal

Journal of Applied PhycologySpringer Journals

Published: Dec 6, 2017

References

You’re reading a free preview. Subscribe to read the entire article.


DeepDyve is your
personal research library

It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.

Enjoy affordable access to
over 18 million articles from more than
15,000 peer-reviewed journals.

All for just $49/month

Explore the DeepDyve Library

Search

Query the DeepDyve database, plus search all of PubMed and Google Scholar seamlessly

Organize

Save any article or search result from DeepDyve, PubMed, and Google Scholar... all in one place.

Access

Get unlimited, online access to over 18 million full-text articles from more than 15,000 scientific journals.

Your journals are on DeepDyve

Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.

All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.

See the journals in your area

DeepDyve

Freelancer

DeepDyve

Pro

Price

FREE

$49/month
$360/year

Save searches from
Google Scholar,
PubMed

Create lists to
organize your research

Export lists, citations

Read DeepDyve articles

Abstract access only

Unlimited access to over
18 million full-text articles

Print

20 pages / month

PDF Discount

20% off