ISSN 1063-0740, Russian Journal of Marine Biology, 2007, Vol. 33, No. 1, pp. 17–29. © Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2007.
Original Russian Text © T.S. Tarasova, T.V. Preobrazhenskaya, 2007, published in Biologiya Morya.
Aquaculture, speciﬁcally mollusk suspended cul-
ture, affects the ecological state of inshore coastal
waters [5, 7, 32–34]. Excess inputs of organic material
from mariculture operations cause changes, primarily
to the bottom sediments. Because of their wide distribu-
tion and high responsiveness to environmental condi-
tions, benthic foramineral assemblages can provide an
indicator of the changes in the marine environment due
to mollusk aquaculture or other anthropogenic impacts.
The foraminifera fauna has been investigated fairly
poorly under conditions of marine aquaculture. Data
available in the literature mainly concern the composi-
tion and distribution of foraminifera in areas of cage
salmonid and mussel farming, and only a few works
analyze the species composition of foraminifera at Jap-
anese scallop culture sites [16, 21, 23].
This study investigates the species composition and
distribution patterns of benthic foraminifera at a scallop
aquaculture site in Minonosok Bay.
MATERIAL AND METHODS
Fifty-six sediment samples taken from the surface
bottom sediments in Minonosok Bay (Posyet Bay,
Peter the Great Bay, Sea of Japan) at depths from 1 to
16 m in October 1998 (13 stations) and in August 2000
(8 stations) (Fig. 1) were examined. Stations were
located along transects; several stations were directly
under scallop cages and the others outside scallop mar-
At each station, two to four sediment samples were
collected by scuba divers using a 20
20 cm frame
) and 5-cm tube samplers, which were plunged
into the sediment to a depth of 1 to 2 cm. Sediments
were also sampled for sediment grain size analysis.
Living specimens were separated from the total for-
aminiferal assemblage of the sediment sample and
ﬁxed with a mixture of 70% ethanol and Rose Bengal
stain . Identiﬁcation of foraminifera was performed
according to the method described by Saidova .
Foraminiferal population density was calculated per
square meter of the bottom.
Species diversity was assessed using the Shannon–
Weaver index :
is the proportion of specimens of the i-th spe-
The relationship between foraminiferal abundance
distribution and sediment type was found using the
rank correlation coefﬁcient of Spearman . Domi-
nant species and assemblages of foraminifera were
determined using the cluster analysis and the average
link method .
Foraminiferal species composition, total abundance,
the number of specimens with calcareous and aggluti-
nated (arenaceous) shells, as well as the percentages of
living to dead specimens,  were considered in the
analysis of the foraminiferal community structure. Spe-
cies represented by single dead specimens were disre-
garded. Species identiﬁcation was made on the basis of
the classiﬁcation given in .
For grain size analysis, samples of bottom sedi-
ments were dried at 80
C and stored in tightly closed
bags. Bottom sediments were sieved and classiﬁed,
Benthic Foraminifera at a Scallop Aquaculture Site
in Minonosok Bay, the Sea of Japan
T. S. Tarasova and T. V. Preobrazhenskaya
Institute of Marine Biology, Far East Division, Russian Academy of Sciences, Vladivostok, 690041 Russia
Received May 19, 2006
—The species composition and distribution of benthic foraminifera at a scallop aquaculture site in
shallow Minonosok Bay (southern Primorye) were studied. Ninety-three species of benthic foraminifera were
found in Minonosok Bay in 1998 and 83 species in 2000; representatives of the families Elphidiidae, Discor-
bidae, Trochamminidae, and Ataxophragmiidae dominated. In 1998, the calcareous species
was most abundant; in 2000, calcareous
and arenaceous species
were dominant. The effect of scallop cultivation on the distribution
of benthic foraminifera was local. The species composition and population density of foraminifera directly
under scallop cages were decreased, compared to areas of the bay where there were no mariculture operations.
Foraminifera, species composition, distribution, bottom sediments, mariculture.