ISSN 10674136, Russian Journal of Ecology, 2010, Vol. 41, No. 3, pp. 272–275. © Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2010.
Original Russian Text © L.V. Perelomov, I.V. Perelomova, E. Kandeler, 2010, published in Ekologiya, 2010, No. 3, pp. 235–238.
From a cybernetic standpoint, soils are very com
plex stochastic systems (Beer, 1963). Numerous com
ponents of these systems are exposed to such a great
variety of influences that their interaction cannot be
described accurately and, therefore, is largely indeter
minate. This is why it is feasible to experiment with
model soil systems consisting of a limited number of
components. Such an approach is especially promis
ing in studies on the initial stages of soil genesis in the
course of primary succession.
In bioorganomineral soil systems, the pool of
microorganisms is a major component having an
effect on biogeochemical cycles of chemical elements,
including heavy metals. These microorganisms can
accumulate large amounts of metals and are involved
in chemical transformation of their compounds
(Gadd, 1988). Moreover, soil microorganisms and
their metabolites interact with soil components and
change their properties, thereby producing an indirect
influence on the behavior of trace elements in the soil
(Huang and Violante, 1986).
The purpose of this study was to analyze specific
features of the behavior of heavy metals (exemplified
by Pb and Zn) in model threecomponent soil systems
consisting of (1) goethite, an ironbearing oxide min
eral, which was synthesized and applied on the surface
of quartz sand grains; (2) a suspension of live and dead
cells of soil microorganisms; and (3) a weakly alkaline
water solution containing Pb and Zn cations.
OBJECTS AND METHODS
Goethite shells (
–FeOOH) on the surface of
thoroughly washed quartz sand grains were produced
by the method of Kinniburgh et al. (1975) modified by
Stahl and James (1991). Soil samples used to extract
microorganisms were taken from the upper horizons
of zonal soils formed under oak forests. These were
gray forest soil from Shcheglovskaya Zaseka (Tula
Behavior of Heavy Metals in Model
ThreeComponent Soil Systems
L. V. Perelomov
, I. V. Perelomova
, and E. Kandeler
Tula State University, pr. Lenina 92, Tula, 300600 Russia
Institute of Soil Science, University of Hohenheim, Emil Wolf Str. 27, D70599 Stuttgart, Germany
Received April 8, 2009
—Model threecomponent soil systems including goethite (a mineral component) and a suspension
of microorganisms (a biological component) have been used to study the interaction of Pb and Zn with the
mineral surface. The results show that live microorganisms markedly reduced the adsorption of these metals,
especially Pb, on the goethite shell surface. In the case of Pb, this is due to a decrease in the content of its
nonexchangeable form; in the case of Zn, to a decrease in the content of its exchangeably bound compounds.
An organic matter preparation obtained by autoclave treatment of microorganisms has a markedly weaker
effect on metal adsorption, compared to the suspension of live microbial cells.
: adsorption, heavy metals, microorganisms, goethite.
Basic properties of soils used for extracting microorganisms
Park soil, Stuttgart
) 5.3 34.1 313 483 45000
Gray forest soil, Tula oblast
4.6 (KCl) 2.2 18.5 16 65 18000