Physical Oceanography, Vol.
AUTOMATION OF RESEARCH IN SEAS AND OCEANS
AUTOMATIC BIOMONITORING OF AQUEOUS MEDIA
BASED ON THE RESPONSE OF BIVALVES
V. V. Tr u s e v i c h ,
P. V. Gaiskii,
and K. A. Kuz’min
We present the results of experimental studies in the field of development and test operation of an auto-
mated system for biomonitoring of aqueous media with purpose to control the content of toxic sub-
stances on the basis of response of bivalves.
As is known, the danger of technogenic catastrophes in the marine medium and in fresh-water basins and
sources is increasing. Such catastrophes can destructively affect the state of environment and health of people.
Therefore, automated systems of control over contaminants acquire growing significance. Moreover, the possi-
bility of acts of terrorism on systems supplying water to towns and settlements requires one to seek new methods
for the rapid detection of toxic substances in water.
In the world practice, such a control more and more frequently involves biological organisms jointly with
technical facilities, which allows one to obtain the integral toxicological characteristic of a habitat irrespective of
the nature and the contents of pollutants. This is related to the fact that any hydrochemical gages react very se-
lectively to the content of various substances. An increase in the number of measuring channels leads to an in-
crease in the cost of devices and in labor consumption during their service. The use of information about the
behavioral response of various biological creatures to various chemical and toxic substances in the given habitat
enables one to develop a more universal system of observations. However, the automation of these observations
is also necessary in this case. The realizations of this control are named the biomarker approach.
Similar systems have already been developed and extensively introduced in controlling systems at units of
water channels in large settlements and water intakes, in places with anthropogenic loading, and in places of
possible technogenic emergencies. At the present time, special attention is given to the development of the bio-
marker approach to the estimation of the state of marine ecosystems in regions of the extraction of gas and oil on
the sea shelf. A particular place in this direction is occupied by the studies aimed at the detection and study of
physiological biomarkers on the basis of which it would be possible to create automated systems of control over
the state and health of ecosystems in real time [1–3].
It is known that thousands of tons of new chemical compounds with unknown toxicological characteristics
are synthesized and fall in the environment every year as a result of the operation of modern plants. Large vol-
umes of cargo traffic by the water transport, the intense development of extraction of mineral resources on the
shelf, and the laying of pipelines for the transport of oil and gas increase the probability of emergencies and
Karadag Natural Reserve, Ukrainian National Academy of Sciences, Feodosiya, Ukraine; e-mail: email@example.com.
Marine Hydrophysical Institute, Ukrainian National Academy of Sciences, Sevastopol, Ukraine; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Marine Hydrophysical Institute, Ukrainian National Academy of Sciences, Sevastopol, Ukraine.
Translated from Morskoi Gidrofizicheskii Zhurnal, No.
75–83, May–June, 2010. Original article submitted January 23, 2009; revi-
sion submitted March 5, 2009.
0928–5105/10/2010–0231 © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 231