ATP-Induced Shape Change of Nuclear Pores Visualized with the Atomic Force Microscope

ATP-Induced Shape Change of Nuclear Pores Visualized with the Atomic Force Microscope Bidirectional transport of molecules between nucleus and cytoplasm through the nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) spanning the nuclear envelope plays a fundamental role in cell function and metabolism. Nuclear import of macromolecules is a two-step process involving initial recognition of targeting signals, docking to the pore and energy-driven translocation. ATP depletion inhibits the translocation step. The mechanism of translocation itself and the conformational changes of the NPC components that occur during macromolecular transport, are still unclear. The present study investigates the effect of ATP on nuclear pore conformation in isolated nuclear envelopes from Xenopus laevis oocytes using the atomic force microscope. All experiments were conducted in a saline solution mimicking the cytosol using unfixed nuclear envelopes. ATP (1 mm) was added during the scanning procedure and the resultant conformational changes of the NPCs were directly monitored. Images of the same nuclear pores recorded before and during ATP exposure revealed dramatic conformational changes of NPCs subsequent to the addition of ATP. The height of the pores protruding from the cytoplasmic surface of the nuclear envelope visibly increased while the diameter of the pore opening decreased. The observed changes occurred within minutes and were transient. The slow-hydrolyzing ATP analogue, ATP-γ-S, in equimolar concentrations did not exert any effects. The ATP-induced shape change could represent a nuclear pore ``contraction.'' The Journal of Membrane Biology Springer Journals

ATP-Induced Shape Change of Nuclear Pores Visualized with the Atomic Force Microscope

Loading next page...
Copyright © Inc. by 1998 Springer-Verlag New York
Life Sciences; Biochemistry, general; Human Physiology
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

There are no references for this article.

You’re reading a free preview. Subscribe to read the entire article.

DeepDyve is your
personal research library

It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.

Enjoy affordable access to
over 12 million articles from more than
10,000 peer-reviewed journals.

All for just $49/month

Explore the DeepDyve Library

Unlimited reading

Read as many articles as you need. Full articles with original layout, charts and figures. Read online, from anywhere.

Stay up to date

Keep up with your field with Personalized Recommendations and Follow Journals to get automatic updates.

Organize your research

It’s easy to organize your research with our built-in tools.

Your journals are on DeepDyve

Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.

All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.

See the journals in your area

Monthly Plan

  • Read unlimited articles
  • Personalized recommendations
  • No expiration
  • Print 20 pages per month
  • 20% off on PDF purchases
  • Organize your research
  • Get updates on your journals and topic searches


Start Free Trial

14-day Free Trial

Best Deal — 39% off

Annual Plan

  • All the features of the Professional Plan, but for 39% off!
  • Billed annually
  • No expiration
  • For the normal price of 10 articles elsewhere, you get one full year of unlimited access to articles.



billed annually
Start Free Trial

14-day Free Trial